Category Archives: Fiber Cables

A clear understanding of the difference between fiber pigtail and patch cord

Previously, I only know different in appearance of the fiber pigtail and patch cord.

The fiber optic patch cord = fiber optic connector + fiber optic cable + fiber optic connector


but the fiber optic pigtail = fiber optic connector + fiber optic cable. I think like this is easy to separate between them.

12fibers SCUPC SM pigtail

Recently, I have readed a discussion about the difference between fiber pigtail and patch core. There are so many professinal people to discuss it. They give me a clear understanding that:

Patch cords are made from either single or multi-fiber cables (usually rated for indoor use) and connected at each end with fiber cable connectors (either single fiber or multiple-fiber connector). Sometimes patch cords are called jumpers, especially if they are simplex or duplex. The connectors are selected to mate with the interfacing equipment or cable connectors. The important idea is that the cable has a connector at each end. The fiber can be either tight or loose buffered and the cable can be made of various diameters (1.2 mm to 3.0 mm are common). The patch cord may have one type of connector (ST FC, SC, LC, etc) on one end and a different connector on the other as long as all the fibers are connectorized on each cable end – this is a transition jumper. Patch cords are commonly used to connect ports on fiber distribution frames (FDFs). The  new mpo connecter make it  possible to run a singel cable that automatically terminates 12 fibers in one easy plug in.  Compared to common patch cord with ST FC, SC, LC connetor, MPO cable is a truly innovative and amazing group of products that really takes fiber optics into the new millennium.


A pigtail is a cable (like a pach cord or jumper) with only one end terminated with an optical connector. Patch cords are often cut into shorter lengths to make two pigtails. Pigtails are found anywhere, but more commonly in optical assemblages or optical components

Pigtails are installed where they will be protected and spliced,lets say on the inside of the ODF and that’s why they are normally not sheathed. They have a coating colour so that you slice them on the corresponding colour on the out coming fiber.
On the other hand patch codes are used between the ODF to the WDM MUX or equipment. If you cut a patch code for use as pigtail then in case of future faulting where you are dealing with multiple pairs it will be difficult. But still if you need to cut the patch code check on its characteristics.

In general, the only major physical differnce b/w patch cord & pigtail is that patch cord is a fixed length piece of cable with dual ended fiber connector type may vary & pigtail is one meter standard OFC core with white white colored jacket. As per standard pigtail can only be used for OFC termination purpose & patch cord is to be used to connect the active component with ODF so that means pigtail can not be used at the place of patch cord.

Municipal Fiber optic networks

The city where I live, Palo Alto has a long tradition of providing municipal utility services (that is, electricity, water, gas, etc) to its residents. For the past several years the city has been considering implementing a municipal fiber optic system which would permit residents to have fiber optic cable link directly to their houses which provided television, telephone and Internet services (at very high bandwidths). Naturally, the incumbent service providers (cable and phone) strongly lobby against such moves (for precisely the same reasons these companies wish to be monopolists in the first place.) The incumbents have sabotaged municipal FTTH fiber efforts in the past — specifically in the “tri-cities” region in Illinois, around the far west suburbs of Chicago.

In this Sunday’s Mercury News, there’s an article which discusses the city’s plan to make a final feasibility study of the project and a recommendation to the city council. Even if the city council votes in favor of the project, there will be a city wide referendum, since fiber optic cable prices would require millions of dollars in bonds to finance.

As a resident of Palo Alto, as well as a technology advocate, I’m rather strongly in favor of such a move by the city, even though it carries some financial risk (if the fiber optic plan flops, the city would have to raise its rates for other utilities).

At last there might be a means of transmission which is separated from the fiber optic cable providers, something that the local cable and phone companies absolutely refuse to provide.

Imagine a network with massive amounts of bandwidth where multiple companies competed to send content down that connection to a consumer. How would this be anything but a win-win situation for everyone? The city sells the bandwidth to many different companies, consumers have lots of choices in content providers, and the content providers are collecting revenue for their content — and that’s the whole point anyway isn’t it?


why you should change from your current source to optical fiber

Fiber optic communications explains about the way communication takes place through optical fiber. Although its history is short the use of optical fiber has grown considerably when compared with its beginning. It is now seen as one of the most used factors where communication is concerned. Below you will find a more detailed description of what optical fiber is.

fiber optic cable sale

The question you might ask yourself is why you should change from your current source to optical fiber. Well, if you simply look at the growing need for communication, you will be able to make a more informed decision. The trend in communication has moved from information that is communicated to more information digitalized. All communication information cannot be possible without a carrier that will have to contain more bandwidth. As frequency determines the carrier’s bandwidth and light carries the highest frequency, it has therefore been found that fiber optics is the strongest way of carrying the needed light.

As it has been confirmed that light is the best carrier of information, the conducting of light will be an important factor in hosting all the information successfully. As fiber optics is a transparent and flexible filament, it has been shown to carry the light in the most effective way. Another important factor is that optical fiber will follow the internal reflection law in order to transmit the light and therefore the information.

Light waves need to be transmitted and received in the correct way and is made possible by the laser diode and photodiode that are the two key components to the fiber optics.

With all these carefully thought out innovations, fiber optics has now become the most successful tool in connecting people from all over the globe.

Fiber optic communications have become mainstream, fiber optic cable sale also received the favor of businessman. Fiberstore, as the leading fiber fiber optic cable providers, have 10 years history on the field of fiber optic communications. The global, vertically-integrated business model and expertise in optical design enables FiberStore to rapidly deliver market-leading, high performance fiber optic components and subsystems. The R&D and engineering teams provide strong innovative capability , who have core technical knowledge ranging from optoelectronic device, optical subassembly, and module design, to product and manufacturing process development expertise. With over 200 employees primarily in Dong Guan and ShenZhen, we can serve the customers and distribution partners around the world fast. What’s more, our custom service and wholesale service save customers’ time and money, making customers enjoy personalization.

What Are the Components of Optical Fiber

What are the components of optical fiber? A typical optical fiber comprises three main components: the core, which carries the light; the cladding, which surrounds the core with a lower refractive index and contains the light; and the coating, which protects the fragile fiber within.


The core, which carries the light, is the smallest part of the optical fiber. The optical fiber core is usually made of glass, although some are made of plastic. The glass used in the core is extremely pure silicon dioxide (SiO2), a material so clear that you could look through 5 miles of it as though you were looking through a household window.

In the manufacturing process, dopants such as germania, phosphorous pentoxide, or alumina are used to raise the refractive index under controlled conditions.

Optical fiber cores are manufactured in different diameters for different applications. Typical glass cores range from as small as 3.7um up to 200um. Core sizes commonly used in telecommunications are 9um, 50um and 62.5um. Plastic optical fiber cores can be much larger than glass. A popular plastic core size is 980um.


The cladding is surrounding the core and providing the lower refractive index to make the optical fiber work. When glass cladding is used, the cladding and the core are manufactured together from the same silicon dioxide-based material in a permanently fused state. The manufacturing process adds different amounts of dopants to the core and the cladding to maintain a difference in refractive indexes between them of about 1%.

A typical core may have a refractive index of 1.49 at 1300nm while the cladding may have a refractive index of 1.47. These numbers, however, are wavelength dependent. The core of the same fiber will have a different refractive index at a different wavelength.

Like the core, the cladding is manufactured in standard diameters. The two most commonly used diameters are 125um and 140um. The 125um cladding typically supports core sizes of 9um, 50um, 62.5um and 85um. The 140um cladding typically has a 100um core.


The coating is the ture protective layer of the optical fiber. The coating absorbs the shocks, nicks, scrapes, and even moisture that could damage the cladding. Without the coating, the optical fiber is very fragile. A single microscopic nick in the cladding could cause the optical fiber to break when it’s bent. Coating is essential for all-glass fibers, and they are not sold without it.

The coating is solely protective. It does not contribute to the light-carrying ability of the optical fiber in any way. The outside diameter of the coating is typically either 250um or 500um.  Generally the coating is colorless. In some applications, however, the coating is colored, so that individual optical fibers in a group of optical fibers can be identified.

The coating found on an optical fiber is selected for a specific type of performance or environment. Once of the most common types of coating is acrylate. This coating is typically applied in two layers. The primary coating is applied directly on the cladding. This coating is soft and provides a cushion for the optical fiber when it is bent. The secondary coating is harder than the primary coating and provides a hard outer surface. Acrylate, however, is limited in temperature performance. A typical acrylates may perform at temperatures up to 125º C.

Silicone, carbon, and polyimide are coatings that may be found on optical fibers that are used in harsh environments such as those associated with avionics, aerospace, and space. They may also be used on optical fibers designed for mining, or oil and gas drilling.


While many combinations of core and cladding sizes are possible, standards are necessary to ensure that connectors and equipment can be matched properly. This is especially important when dealing with components as small as those used in fiber optics, where even slight misalignments can render the entire system useless.

Two organizations publish standards that define the performance of optical fibers used in the Telecommunications industry; they are the Telecommunications Industry Association (TIA)and the International Telecommunications Union (ITU). While TIA and ITU publish many standards on optical fiber, the key standards that you should be familiar with ANSI/TIA-568-C.3, ITU-TG.653, ITU-TG.655 and ITU-T G.657.

The ANSI/TIA-568-C.3 standard is applicable to premises optical fiber cabling components. The ITU standards are applicable to Single Mode Fiber Optic Cable. The following are their descriptions:

>ITU-TG.652: Characteristics of a single mode optical fiber and cable

>ITU-T G.655: Characteristics of a dispersion shifted single mode optical fiber and cable

>ITU-T G.657: Characteristics of a non-zero dispersion-shifted single mode optical fiber and cable

These standards contain important information that defines the performance of the optical fiber, Fiber Optics Cables, and components such as Fiber Optics Connectors and splices.


Optical fibers are commonly made with a glass core and glass cladding, but other materials may be used if the fiber’s performance must be balanced with the cost of installing the fiber, fitting it with connectors, and ensuring that it is properly protected from damage. In many cases, fibers must run only a short distance, and the benefits of high quality all glass fibers become less important than simply saving money. There are also circumstances in which the fibers are exposed to harsh conditions, such as vibration, extreme temperature, repeated handling, or constant movement. Different fiber classifications have evolved to suit different conditions, cost factors, and performance requirements.

The major fiber classifications by material are

Glass fibers: These have a glass core and glass cladding. They are used when high data rates, longtransmission distances, or a combination of both are required. Glass fibers are the most fragile of the various types available, and as a result they must be installed in environments where they will not be subjected to a great deal of abuse, or they must be protected by special cables or enclosures to ensure that they are not damaged.

Glass fibers are commonly found in long-distance data and interbuilding and interoffice networking applications.

Plastic clad silica (PCS): These fibers have a glass core and plastic cladding. The core is larger than all-glass fiber; typically, 200µm with a cladding thickness of 50µm. Like a siliconecoated glass optical fiber, the plastic coating of a PCS optical fiber is typically used with a thermo-plastic buffer that surrounds the plastic cladding. A typical PCS fiber specification would be 200/300µm. The plastic cladding also serves as a protective layer for the glass core, so the coating normally found on all-glass fiber is not included on PCS fibers. PCS fibers are typically used for industrial sensing applications and medical/dental applications.

Hard-clad silica (HCS): These fibers are similar to PCS fiber but they have a glass core with cladding made of a hard polymer or other material, typically stronger than other cladding materials. Hard-clad silica fiber is commonly used in locations where ruggedness is a prime consideration, such as manufacturing, factory automation, and other areas where shock and vibration would render standard glass fibers unreliable. HCS optical fibers are typically much larger than glass optical fibers. A very popular size is 200/230µm.

Plastic fiber: These fibers have a plastic core and plastic cladding. They are selected for their low cost, ruggedness, and ease of use, and are installed where high bandwidth and long transmission distances are not required. While plastic fibers are unsuited for long-distance, high performance transmissions, they can still carry signals with useful data rates over distances of less than 100m. A very popular size is 980/1000µm. Plastic fiber is typically designed for visible wavelengths in the 650nm range. Some typical locations for plastic fiber include home entertainment systems, automotive, and manufacturing control systems. They may also be used in links between computers and peripherals and in medical equipment.

The advantages of large core plastic optical fiber

It is easy to get excited about the high bandwidth and long distance transmission capabilities of glass optical fiber. It clearly outperforms any other medium. However, many applications do not require a high bandwidth over great distances. There are many applications for optical fiber in your home. You may already have a home entertainment system that uses plastic optical fiber, or you may own a car that uses plastic optical fiber to connect audio devices or a DVD changer. None of these applications requires high bandwidth over great distances. These applications are ideal for large core plastic optical fiber.Plastic optical fiber is typically designed to operate at a visible wavelength around the 650nm range. Being able to see the light as it exits the optical fiber has a significant advantage; no expensive test equipment is required. A power meter is needed to measure the light exiting a glass optical fiber operating in the infrared range. Power meters can cost more than your home entertainment system.

The large core of the plastic optical fiber has another advantage over small glass fibers: it is easy to align with another fiber or a light source or detector. Imagine aligning two human hairs so that the ends touch and are perfectly centered. Now imagine doing the same thing with two uncooked spaghetti noodles.

Plastic Optical Fibres Considered to Use in FTTH Applications

The cost of plastic optical cable (POF) in high-speed short-distance communication transmission is as same as symmetrical cables, the transmission bandwidth up to several GHz within 100 metres, and with easy connection, good flexibility, easy bending and other advantages. Despite the current system performance is still in the early stage of research or application, but it is not to be ignored of its roles in the future short distance communication, from the advantage of price and performance, making it has a broad prospect in the whole fibre optic network of FTTH application.

Compared with quartz fibre, POF has the following advantages: low modulus, large core diametre (0.3-1.0mm), can use simple POF connectors when splicing, even if the 30μm deviation produced by optical fibre splicing centre alignment does not affect the coupling loss; large numerical aperture (about NA0.5), the acceptance light angle up to 60°and that of quartz fibre is only 16 °, availability of cheap LED, and high coupling efficiency;flexibility is good, easy to manufacture and use; a low loss window in the range of visible light; light weight; low cost and processing cost.

Compared with other transmission mediums in the LAN(Local Area Network) system, POF network also has obvious advantages: POF is not sensitive to electromagnetic interference, no radiation, attenuation constant in different data rates, error rate can be forecasted, can be used in electrical noisy environment; features long-size, can reduce the requirement of tolerance control in joint design, so lower the cost of net.

Plastic optical fibre as the ideal transmission medium for short-distance communication network, plays an important role in the data transmission of future intelligent household, office automation, industrial control network, the airborne communication network, military communication network.

Through the plastic optical fibre, we can realize the networking of intelligent home appliances (home PC, HDTV, telephone, digital imaging equipment, security equipment, air conditioning, household refrigerators, sound system, kitchen appliances, etc.), getting home automation and remote control management, improving living quality. Through the plastic optical fibre, we also can realize the office equipment networking, for example, computer networking can realize the computer parallel processing, can greatly improve the working efficiency of high-speed data transmission between the office equipment, realizing telecommuting and so on.

When the data rate is less than 100Mbps of low speed LAN, SI plastic optical fibre can realize the transmission within 100 metres and small numerical aperture POF can achieve the transmission in 150Mbps 50m.

At present, POF is also widely used in the manufacturing industry. Through the converter, POF can be connected with RS232 Ethernet Converter, RS422 Ethernet Converter, 100Mbps Ethernet, token ring and other standard protocol interfaces, thus providing stable, reliable communication lines in harsh industrial manufacturing environments. POF enables high-speed transmission of industrial control signals and instructions, avoiding the risk of communication interrupt resulted by electromagnetic interference with metal cable lines.

POF is lightweight and durable, can form a network of on-board unit communication network and control system, the micro-computer, satellite navigation devices, mobile phones, fax and other peripherals into the overall design of locomotives, passengers can also enjoy music, movies, video games, shopping, Internet and other services in the seat through the plastic optical fibre network.

In military communication, POF is being developed for high-speed transmission of large amounts of the third and confidential information, for example, using the POF characteristics of light weight, flexibility, quick connection, suitable for portable wear, for soldiers wearable light computer systems, as well as can be inserted into the communication network to download, store, send and receive mission critical information, and displayed on the helmet display.

With the development of POF manufacturing technology and raw material preparation technology, the production cost of POF will continuously reduce; from the current development situation of laser, optoelectronic integrated device and connector, with the continuous expansion of production scale, we believe that the cost of sending and receiving devices will decline significantly, so the POF has more advantage in access communication.

Plastic Optical Fibre Home Networking Solutions

Revolutionary POF plastic optical fibre (POF) home networking solutions to promote the popularization of FTTH, make it at the same time promote IPTV and HDTV service. POF and highly flexibility, security and stability. POF switches more economical, and highly reliability, provide exclusive ultra-high frequency width for each connection. Home network by laying professionals can also use the tool to roll out low-cost networking. This similar to the “garden sprinkler hose” type of connection so that the system installed than any other home networking technologies more convenient and efficient.

Home network is composed of two or more computers, IP telephony, IPTV, printers, cameras, devices together to achieve communication, watching TV, print, monitoring and other purposes, but the home network can share resources, file sharing, Internet access to the Internet, CD-ROM, hard disk and other additional resources.

System can provide up to 1G of exchange capacity and ensure household equipment interconnected transmission quality, high-speed Ethernet for home 100 trillion most reliable technology. System uses a loss factor 150-200dB/km, 1mm diametre plastic optical fibre, coated into 1.5 and 2.2mm white or black twinax cable, 100 metres weights less than 800g, tensile strength greater than 140N, numerical aperture NA of 0.3-0.5, acceptance angle to 60°, fibre optic splice centre alignment deviation of less than 30um, almost does not affect the coupling loss. softness and ultrafine fibre diametre in the new construction or renovation of buildings wiring, wheter walls or wall, skirting, cerpet laying the cable is below, or generally easy to reach places that are hidden requirements, other than the network transmission medium (such as Cat5e or Cat6 Patch Cable) has more advantages, highlight the home network installation easy.

Functions and Features

1. Easy and quick installation;

2. Small volume;

3. Simple design;

4. Through the use of visible light, can rapidly eliminate problems;

5. High cost;

6. Sharing Internet access and file transfer;

7. Multiplayer games;

8. Make Internet phone calls through the Internet, you can greatly reduce the cost of international calls;

9. Watch HD Internet TV (IPTV);

10. As the plastic fibre access provides 100 MB bandwidth, so you can for a long period of time to worry about upgrade issues;

11. You can print, copy, fax and scan, suitable for home office needs, and at the same time network monitoring, no matter where you are, as long as there is a network where you can always see the situation at home.

Twist Beam Can Improve The Fiber Information Carrying Capacity

FiberStore news, the latest research achievements from a research team in the United States show, encoding information through twist beam of different shape can improve the Internet “Information Super Highway” carrying capacity, which effectively alleviate the network congestion.

Internet traffic is growing exponentially, researchers have been trying to enhance the communication capacity of optic fiber cable. A successful method used in the past 20 years, basically is to rely on the more “lane”, refers to use a different color or wavelength to transmit different signals. But just like in the real highway, since the amount of “lane” is increased, each width is narrower, so the data stream can only be mixed together.

From past few years, there are a number of research teams trying to get through the shape of light beam to encode the information, in order to ease network traffic congestion, the technology used the called light property of orbital angular momentum. Currently, the network signal is the use of straight spread light beam to transmit, but the specific filters can make the beam distortions in varying degrees in the process of moving. However, the experiments results using this effect are not ideal: different shapes of light beam often mix with each other in advance distance of less than 1 metre.

But now, researchers at Boston University and the University of Southern California cooperated, found a way to make the different shapes of light beam travel separately, the transmission distance reached a record of 1.1 km.

In the experiment, the researchers designed and built a 1.1 km long glass fiber cable, the cross section has a different refractive index (used to measure the travel speed of light in a specific medium). Then, they sent beam of winding and straight along the cable.

The research team found, light output and input can be matched, show that the various shapes beam does not appear mixed. Different refractive index significantly affects only a certain shape of beam, so these different shapes of beams are moving at different speeds in the cable. “This means we can keep them separate.” Research team leader, Boston University Electrical Engineer Saida Si Rama Ramachandran said.

The researchers carried out several tests using beam of clockwise and counterclockwise with varying distortion degrees, and found there are about 10 different shapes of beams can be used to transmit information. The results are exciting, because every shapes may presage the “information highway” traffic is expected to reach a whole new level. Based on this, the data stream is is further divided into narrow “lane” according to the different colors, thereby maximize the flow.

However, the laboratory results applied to real world still need time, in part because the current Internet fiber optic cable only transport straight beams. Ramachandran said, a more direct goal, may be used in server farm between servers by some large network companies like Facebook, install cables which can transmit twisted beam in short distance.

Fiber Optic Patch Cable Of Cabling System Management

For cabling, telecommunication rooms and equipment rooms are the convergence of three businesses including data, voice and image, and its importance is self-evident. So making great efforts in their overall design, equipment stereotypes, hardware configuration, maintenance and other aspects of construction. However, the construction side always tends to ignore the largest number of equipment maintenance and installation of security – fiber optic cables and fiber patch cables in the telecommunications rooms and equipment rooms. While ignoring the problem will bring us a lot of trouble to the machine room management therefore I believe that it is necessary to have proper fiber optic patch cord management operations.

In general, reasonable patch cables management can be divided into five processes: planning, preparation, wiring, testing and verification.

1. Planning

For patch cables management, should be prepared the requirements planning including present and future.

1.1 Change Requests. A variety of management activities, move, add or change (MAC) all began in the change requests. Change requests must contain all the necessary information about starting the planning procedures.

1.2 Search Records. After receiving the request table, searching the coping recording, in order to determine the circuit paths used.

1.3 Correct Routing. Before determine the correct length of fiber optic patch cord, we should first find out the best route between the ports. Usually the shortest route is passing from the horizontal and vertical cable. Moreover shall not obstruct or interfere with the other jumpers or connectors in the distribution frame. When select fiber optic patch cables, should avoid excessive laxity, ensure the appearance clean and tidy. Jumper too tight will increase the pulling force of connectors, whereas overwork slack will bring trouble to jumper management, increase the patch panel’s management difficulty.

2. Preparation

Before the implementation of management, you should do prepare as much as possible, to research the management records. Determine the label information of connection and reconnect port location and the relevant ports.

2.1 First check the require patch cable model, and then check the quality of the jumper. To ensure the quality of the jumper is correct, need to check whether the jumper is damaged. In order to check it is damaged or not, of course you can from the appearance of the jumper, if possible, use professional equipment to check.
2.2  Then check the situation of the require connecting portion, in order to avoid physical damage to the connection parts.
2.3  Finally need to clean the jumper joints and the connecting parts.

There are two ways available to clean the fiber connectors: contact and non-contact.

Contact Cleaning Method:
(1). Wiping paper and anhydrous alcohol, using raw wood pulp with special processing technology, ultra-low dust, pure texture, high performance water absorption, delicate, will not scratch the surface swabbed, with a low dust wipe with no water-alcohol wipe on fiber optic connectors;
(2). Non-woven fabric, does not produce lint, tough, without any chemical impurities, silky soft, does not cause allergic reactions, and not easy to fluff and hair loss, as the ideal choice for cleaning fiber optic connectors or pins on the production or testing, wipe fiber optical connector with no water-alcohol;
(3). Cleaning cotton swabs, specifically designed for ceramic casing internal cleaning or for cleaning the ferrule end face of the flange (or adapter) which is not easy reached;
(4). Professional cleaner, fiber optic connector special cleaner uses special cleaning wiping belt, mounted in a scramble enclosure, no alcohol, each cleaning is very effective and produces a new surface, convenient and practical.

Non-Contact Cleaning Method:

(1). Ultrasonic cleaning method, it replaces clean liquid into ultrasonic “column” to the connector end surface, and waste recycling and sucked clean in the same small space;
(2). High-pressure blowing method, its principle is at the connector end first coated with cleaning fluid, and then use high-pressure gas blowing at the connector end surface;

2.4 Check the fiber optic connector cleanliness

After finish cleaning fiber optic connectors, must check the terminated surface. General practice is to use a magnifying glass 100, 200 times or 400 times to check, the figure below shows the fiber end-face in a pure state and a contaminated state.

Patch cable management person, no matter using which method mentioned above, for some serious pollution or difficult to clean connectors, needs to use cotton swabs, alcohol and other cleaning fluid to handle.

After this series of preparatory work, it means the wiring work of patch cable management is to expand.

3. Wiring

Patch panel installation, should base on operational procedures to complete various stages of any work. Patch cable construction kinks, glitches, bad pinch and bad contact are likely to significantly reduce the jumper performance. To avoid such problems, you should focus on the following factors:

(1). Bending radius
The minimum bending radius jumper allows need to comply with the jumper manufacturer operating specifications.

Standard says, the minimum bend radius of unshielded twisted pair (UTP) cable should be at four times as the diameter of fiber optic cable, shielded twisted-pair cable is as eight times as the diameter of fiber optic cable. The minimum bend radius of 2-core or 4-core horizontal cable is greater than 25mm, if the bending radius is smaller than this standard, it may lead to a change in the relative position of the wire, resulting in reduced transmission performance.

(2). Jumper tensile and stress
During wiring process, not excessive force, otherwise it may increase the stress on jumpers and connectors, resulting in decreased performance.

(3). Bundle
The jumper is not always needed bundling, if bundled strapping manufacturers need to comply with the principle, not tied too tight, otherwise it will cause a twisted pair variant. Do not over-tighten the clamp, the jumper should be able to freely rotate. Please use a dedicated product, consider choosing repeated use products without tools, such as nylon sticking with buckle belt.

4. Testing

Even after the jumper wiring completed, but may be that if the fiber links or copper links are in full compliance with operating specifications or cabling international and national standards. Then it should be fiber or copper testing, only in accordance with the testing standards, then can determine whether it passes the test standard.

5. Verification

(1). It is worth spending the time to the final visual inspection of the connection. Ensure that the jumper relaxation not knot, is not a cabinet door clamp.

(2). The final step is based on the existing configuration update records, close and have completed the change request related work orders.

Now the fiber optic cable is one of the most important components of integrated wiring system, especially good management operation of fiber jumpers in the data center project, is particularly prominent. Believe that as construction management personnel reasonably jumper management operates, will make the entire comprehensive wiring system become advanced, scientific, practical and reliable.

With the large number applications of 10G/40G/100G network in data center, on-site installation and management of fiber optic patch cable becomes increasingly important, the jumpers management sometimes affect the overall channel attenuation, good management ensures fiber channel data transmission in the most excellent condition, process-oriented operations such as planning, preparation, wiring, testing and verification have important significance to assurance the quality of the system.

Choosing Fiber Optic Cable Or Copper Wire For Communication

When computer networks were invented, copper wiring was used for the cables that handled the Internet. But nowadays fiber optic cable is more often used for new cabling installations and upgrades, including backbone, horizontal, and even desktop applications. They are more favored for today’s high-speed data communications, such as Gigabit Ethernet, FDDI, multimedia, ATM, SONET, Fiber Channel, or any other network that requires the transfer of large, bandwidth-consuming data files, particularly over long distances.

Fiber optic cables offer a number of advantages over copper.

Lower Cost–While fiber optic cable itself is cheaper than an equivalent length of copper cable, fiber optic cable connectors and the equipment needed to install them are more expensive than their copper counterparts.

Long Distance And High Capacity–Fiber optic cables carry communication signals using pulses of light. Only fiber optics can go the long distance. Not only is fiber optic cable capable of carrying far more data than copper, it also has the ability to carry that information for much longer distances. Fiber to the Home (FTTH) installations are becoming more common as a way to bring ultra-high speed Internet service (100 Mbps and higher) to residences.

Higher Bandwith–Fiber has a higher bandwidth than copper. Example: cat6 network cable is classified by the Telecommunications Industry Association (TIA) to handle a bandwidth up to 600 MHz over 100 meters, which theoretically, could carry around 18,000 calls at the same time. Multimode Fiber, on the other hand, would have a bandwidth of over 1000 MHz which could carry almost 31,000 simultaneous calls.

Adaptable To Any Environment–Fiber optic cables don’t mind roughing it. Since fiber optic cables are glass-based, glass fibers don’t only escape interference. They are virtually free from the threat of corrosion, too. While copper cabling is sensitive to water and chemicals, fiber optic cabling runs almost no risk of being damaged by harsher elements. Fiber optic cables can be used outdoors — and in close proximity to electrical cables –without concern. As a result, fiber optic cable can easily endure “living conditions” that coaxial cable just can’t, such as being put in direct contact with soil, or in close proximity to chemicals.

For reasons stated above, fiber optic cable is a more reliable means of communication. While the decision on using copper cables or fiber optic cables may be difficult. It will often depend on your current network, your future networking needs, and your particular application, including bandwidth, distances, environment, and cost. While in some cases, copper may be a better choice.

Copper works on simple ADSL connections since there is not much of a distance from a modem to a phone jack on a wall. Copper usually transmits data without loss at distances of two kilometers or less. On top of all that, the demand for bandwidth in an ADSL connection is often low enough (around 6 to 8 Mbps on average) to use copper wires.

As the mature of fiber optic cables production, they are more affordable. Choosing fiber optic cables or copper wire for your communication is completely up to your future networking needs and your particular application.

The Broadband Wider and Wider, Which Benefits Cables Management Suppliers

MITT(Ministry of Industry and Information) published news that the ministry, the national development and reform commission eight departments jointly issued “on the implementation of broadband’s opinions on China’s 2013 special action, points out that more than 4M broadband users in China will exceed 70% in 2013. Analysts believe that the Internet companies are expected to benefit from broadband equipment suppliers.

“Opinions” pointed out that in 2013, the new FTTH fiber to the home fiber optic patch cables family covered more than 35 million units, 3G base station across 180000, 1.3million new WLAN access point. Universal scale expands unceasingly to benefit the people. The new fixed broadband Internet users more than 25 million units, the new 3G users, new broadband administrative villages, 18000, 5000 poor rural areas by accelerated the broadband access or modification of primary and secondary schools, a user use above 4M access more than 70%.

Cic’s consultant in the IT industry researcher Wang Ningyuan analysis that the ministry had issued a number of policies to promote the development of the broadband industry, the above opinion is a complement to the policy, put forward specific requirements for broadband industry development. Mainly in rural areas, urban old residential area of cables management broadband and wireless broadband, and guide enterprises to actively expand remote rural market, and to improve broadband fiber optic network industry.

Mr. Zhang thinks that from the perspective of the investment returns, China Unicom is a mature network system suppliers; ZTE in base station construction will have certain positive, investors can focus on for a long time. Additionally notable sector stocks, optical equipment suppliers such as zhongtian technology; Mobile device accessories manufacturers such as Wu Tong communications, Da Fu technology,etc.

But Wang Ningyuan also reminded investors, broadband stocks p/e ratio is generally on the high side, the ministry has introduced various policies, such opinion to the positive role of the market is limited, not enough to support the current high earnings expectations.