Unlock Network Stability: Master Fault Detection Tech

With the rapid development of information technology, the network has become an indispensable part of data center operations. From individual users to large enterprises, everyone relies on the network for communication, collaboration, and information exchange within these centralized hubs of computing power. However, the continuous expansion of network scale and increasing complexity within data centers also brings about numerous challenges, prominently among them being network faults. This article will take you through several common fault detection technologies, including CFD, BFD, DLDP, Monitor Link, MAC SWAP, and EFM, as well as their applications and working principles in different network environments.

What is Fault Detection Technology?

Fault detection technology is a set of methods, tools, and techniques used to identify and diagnose abnormalities or faults within systems, processes, or equipment. The primary goal is to detect deviations from normal operation promptly, allowing for timely intervention to prevent or minimize downtime, damage, or safety hazards. Fault detection technology finds applications in various industries, including manufacturing, automotive, aerospace, energy, telecommunications, and healthcare. By enabling early detection of faults, these technologies help improve reliability, safety, and efficiency while reducing maintenance costs and downtime.

Common Types of Network Faults

Networks are integral to both our daily lives and professional endeavors, yet they occasionally fall victim to various faults. This holds particularly true within data centers, where the scale and complexity of networks reach unparalleled levels. In this part, we’ll delve into common types of network faults and explore general solutions for addressing them. Whether you’re a home user or managing an enterprise network, understanding these issues is crucial for maintaining stability and reliability, especially within the critical infrastructure of data centers.

What Causes Network Failure?

Network faults can arise from various sources, often categorized into hardware failures, software issues, human errors, and external threats. Understanding these categories provides a systematic approach to managing and mitigating network disruptions.

  • Hardware Failures:Hardware failures are physical malfunctions in network devices, leading to impaired functionality or complete downtime.
  • Software Issues: Software-related problems stem from errors or bugs in the operating systems, firmware, or applications running on network devices. Common software faults include operating system crashes, firmware bugs, configuration errors and protocol issues.
  • Human Errors: Human errors, such as misconfigurations or mistakes during maintenance activities, can introduce vulnerabilities or disrupt network operations. Common human-induced faults include unintentional cable disconnections, misconfigurations, inadequate documentation or lack of training.
  • External Threats: External threats pose significant risks to network security and stability, potentially causing extensive damage or data loss. Common external threats include cyberattacks, malware attacks, physical security breaches or environmental factors.

By recognizing and addressing these common types of network faults, organizations can implement proactive measures to enhance network resilience, minimize downtime, and safeguard critical assets against potential disruptions.

What Can We Do to Detect These Failures?

  • Connectivity testing: Checks for proper connectivity between devices on a network. This can be accomplished through methods such as a ping test, which detects network connectivity by sending packets to a target device and waiting for a response.
  • Traffic analysis: Monitor data traffic in the network to detect unusual traffic patterns or sudden increases in traffic. This may indicate a problem in the network, such as congestion or a malicious attack.
  • Fault tree analysis: A fault tree model is created by analyzing the various possibilities that can lead to a fault. This helps in determining the probability of a fault occurring and the path to diagnose it.
  • Log analysis: Analyze log files of network devices and systems to identify potential problems and anomalies. Error messages and warnings in the logs often provide important information about the cause of the failure.
  • Remote monitoring: Utilize remote monitoring tools to monitor the status of network devices in real time. This helps to identify and deal with potential faults in a timely manner.
  • Self-healing network technologies: Introducing self-healing mechanisms to enable the network to recover automatically when a failure is detected. This may involve automatic switching to backup paths, reconfiguration of devices, etc.
  • Failure simulation: Tests the network’s performance under different scenarios by simulating different types of failures and assessing its tolerance and resilience to failures.

Commonly Used Fault Detection Technologies

In the next section, we will explore some common fault detection technologies essential for maintaining the robustness of networks, particularly within the dynamic environment of data centers. These technologies include CFD, BFD, DLDP, Monitor Link, MAC SWAP, and EFM, each offering unique capabilities and operating principles tailored to different network contexts. Understanding their applications is vital for effectively identifying and addressing network faults, ensuring the uninterrupted performance of critical data center operations.


CFD (Connectivity Fault Detection), which adheres to the IEEE 802.1ag Connectivity Fault Management (CFM) standard, is an end-to-end per-VLAN link layer Operations, Administration, and Maintenance (OAM) mechanism utilized for link connectivity detection, fault verification, and fault location. It is a common feature found in networking equipment and protocols. Its primary function is to identify faults or disruptions in network connectivity between devices. Typically, it operates through the following steps: monitoring connectivity, expecting responses, detecting faults, and triggering alerts or actions. By continuously monitoring network connectivity and promptly detecting faults, CFD ensures the reliability and stability of network communications, facilitating quicker issue resolution and minimizing downtime.


BFD (Bidirectional Forwarding Detection) is a function that checks the survival status of the forwarding path between two adjacent routers, quickly detect failures, and notify the routing protocol. It is designed to achieve the fastest fault detection with minimal overhead and is typically used to monitor links between two network nodes. The BFD can be said to be an effective function when there is an L2 switch between adjacent routers and a failure occurs where the link status cannot be transmitted. FS offers a range of data center switches equipped with BFD functions, guaranteeing optimal network performance and stability. Opting for FS enables you to construct a robust and dependable data center network, benefiting from the enhanced network reliability facilitated by BFD.

Bidirectional Forwarding Detection


DLDP (Device Link Detection Protocol) is instrumental in bolstering the reliability and efficiency of Ethernet networks within data centers. Serving as an automatic link status detection protocol, DLDP ensures the timely detection of connection issues between devices. DLDP maintains the status of links by periodically sending messages, and once it detects any abnormality in the link, it promptly notifies the relevant devices and takes necessary actions to rectify the issue, ensuring network stability and reliability. This proactive approach not only enhances network stability and reliability but also streamlines fault troubleshooting processes within Ethernet-based data center networks, ultimately optimizing operational performance.

Device Link Detection Protocol

Monitor Link

Monitor Link is to trigger the change of the downlink port state by monitoring the change of the uplink port state of the device, thus triggering the switching of the backup link. This scheme is usually used in conjunction with Layer 2 topology protocols to realize real-time monitoring and switching of links. Monitor Link is mainly used in scenarios that require high network redundancy and link backup, such as in enterprise or business-critical networks that require high availability. As the figure shows, once a change in uplink status is monitored, the Monitor Link system triggers a corresponding change in downlink port status. This may include closing or opening the downlink port, triggering a switchover of the backup link. In a data center network, Monitor Link can be used to monitor the connection status between servers. When the primary link fails, Monitor Link can quickly trigger the switchover of the backup link, ensuring high availability in the data center.

Monitor Link application scenario


“MAC SWAP” refer to MAC address swap, which is a communication technique in computer networking. This involves swapping the source and destination MAC addresses during the transmission of data packets, typically performed by network devices such as switches or routers. This swapping usually occurs as packets pass through network devices, which forward packets to the correct port based on their destination MAC addresses.Within the intricate network infrastructure of data centers, MAC address swapping is pervasive, occurring as packets traverse various network devices. This process guarantees the efficient routing and delivery of data, essential for maintaining seamless communication within both local area networks (LANs) and wide area networks (WANs) encompassed by data center environments.Overall, MAC SWAP enables real-time monitoring of link status, providing timely link information and embodies flexibility to some extent, but may also introduce additional bandwidth overhead and have impact on network performance.


EFM (Ethernet in the First Mile), as its name suggests, is a technology designed to solve link problems common in the last mile of Ethernet access and provide high-speed Ethernet services over the first mile of connection. The last-mile problem usually refers to the last physical link in the network access layer between the subscriber’s equipment and the service provider’s network, and EFM is committed to improving the performance and stability of this link to ensure that subscribers can get reliable network access services.EFM is often used as a broadband access technology for delivering high-speed Internet access, voice services, and other data services to businesses and residential customers within data center environments. EFM supports various deployment scenarios, including point-to-point and point-to-multipoint configurations. This flexibility allows service providers to tailor their network deployments based on factors such as geographic coverage, subscriber density, and service offerings. As data centers strive to expand Ethernet-based connectivity to the access network, EFM plays a pivotal role in enabling service providers to deliver high-speed, reliable, and cost-effective Ethernet services to their customers. This technology significantly contributes to the overall efficiency and functionality of data center operations by ensuring seamless and dependable network connectivity for all stakeholders involved.


In the face of evolving network environments, it is increasingly important to accurately and rapidly identify and resolve fault problems. Mastering fault detection techniques will definitely unleash your network’s stability. Integrating fault detection techniques into network infrastructure, especially in data center environments, is critical to maintaining high availability and minimizing downtime.

How FS Can Help

The comprehensive networking solutions and product offerings not only save costs but also reduce power consumption, delivering higher value. Would you like to reduce the occurrence rate of failures? FS tailors customized solutions for you and provide free technical support. By choosing FS, you can confidently build a powerful and reliable data center network and enjoy improvement in network reliability.

Unveiling Storage Secrets: The Power of Distributed Systems

In the realm of data center storage solutions, understanding the intricacies of expansion methods is paramount. Effective storage is crucial for managing the growing volumes of data and ensuring secure, efficient access. As data centers evolve, reliable and flexible storage options are essential to meet the ever-changing demands of businesses. With this foundation, this article will start with traditional storage systems and move towards distributed storage fundamentals and their diverse applications.

Direct Attached Storage

Direct Attached Storage (DAS) refers to storage devices directly connected to a server, utilizing interfaces like SATA, SAS, and USB. It offers cost-effective and simple installation, with good performance for applications like operating systems and databases. However, DAS has limited scalability and challenges in resource sharing among servers. Additionally, server failures can impact storage access, highlighting the need for careful consideration in its implementation.


Centralized Network Storage

Unlike DAS, NAS and SAN storage is networked storage, where NAS has its own file system that can be accessed and used directly through a PC, while SAN does not have its own file system, but has dedicated switches that provide storage services to servers over a dedicated network.

  • NAS

NAS (Network Attached Storage) is a specialized storage server designed to provide file-level data access over a network. Connected through Ethernet, it enables access via protocols such as NFS and CIFS/SMB. NAS offers centralized management, facilitating easy sharing and good scalability for storage needs. However, compared to DAS, NAS typically incurs a higher cost. Furthermore, its performance is susceptible to network conditions, which can affect data access speeds. Despite these drawbacks, NAS remains a popular choice for organizations seeking efficient and centralized file storage solutions.

  • SAN

SAN (Storage Area Network) is a high-speed dedicated network designed to facilitate block-level data access, primarily tailored for enterprise-level applications. SANs typically utilize advanced technologies like Fiber Channel (FC) or Ethernet, establishing connections between servers and storage devices via protocols such as FC-SAN or iSCSI. These networks offer numerous advantages, including high performance, scalability, and suitability for large-scale data storage and mission-critical applications. SANs also support data redundancy and robust disaster recovery mechanisms. However, the implementation of SANs comes with notable drawbacks, such as high initial costs, complex configuration and management requirements, necessitating specialized knowledge and technical support throughout their lifecycle.


In summary, DAS is like a large-scale portable hard drive, suitable for small environments or personal use; NAS is a storage device within a network, ideal for small businesses or households requiring file sharing capabilities; SAN is a network within storage devices, designed for high-performance, high-availability storage solutions for large enterprises and data centers.

Basics of Distributed Storage

From the organization structure of storage, storage can be divided into three types: direct attached storage (DAS), centralized network storage (NAS and SAN), and distributed network storage. Next, we will explore distributed storage in detail, examining its core principles, advantages, classifications and applications.Distributed storage is a data storage architecture that disperses data across multiple independent physical storage devices (nodes) over a network, rather than centrally storing it on a single or a few devices like traditional storage. This technology is designed to enhance the scalability, performance, reliability, and efficiency of storage systems. Consequently, it is particularly suitable for handling large-scale data storage and access requirements.

Advantages of Distributed Storage

Distributed storage systems offer numerous benefits that make them a preferred choice for modern data storage needs, especially in large-scale and geographically dispersed environments. Here are some of the key advantages:

  • Reliability and Redundancy: These systems typically replicate data across multiple nodes, ensuring that even if one node fails, the data can still be retrieved from another node. This replication enhances the reliability and availability of the data. Additionally, distributed storage systems are designed to be fault-tolerant, allowing them to continue operating smoothly even in the event of hardware failures. For instance, if a data center is rendered inoperative due to a natural disaster, other data centers can still provide data access services, ensuring continuous availability.
  • Scalability: Distributed storage systems can easily expand storage capacity by adding nodes, an approach known as horizontal scaling. In contrast, centralized systems need to expand by adding capacity to individual storage devices, known as vertical scaling, which is typically less efficient and more costly. In addition, distributed storage systems can balance workloads across multiple nodes, preventing a single node from becoming a performance bottleneck. This scalability makes distributed storage suitable for a wide range of needs, from small businesses to large-scale Internet services.
  • Cost Efficiency: Distributed storage systems often utilize commodity hardware, which is more economical than specialized storage solutions. This reduces hardware costs and allows organizations to build large-scale storage systems using affordable equipment.
  • Improved Disaster Recovery: By storing data in multiple locations, these systems are better protected against natural disasters, power outages and other localized disruptions. Cloud storage providers typically back up data in different geographic locations to ensure high availability and security.

In summary, distributed storage represents a powerful and versatile solution for modern data management, offering significant advantages in reliability, scalability, cost efficiency, and disaster recovery. These advantages make it an essential component of enterprise storage architectures, capable of meeting the diverse needs of today’s data-driven organizations.

Classification of distributed storage

Based on the characteristics and requirements of different scenarios, distributed storage products can be classified into four main categories based on storage objects, product forms, storage mediums, and deployment methods.

  • Classification by storage object

In terms of storage objects, it includes distributed block storage, distributed file storage, distributed object storage, and distributed unified storage. Distributed block storage examples include Ceph and vSAN, while distributed file storage examples are Ceph, HDFS, and GFS. Distributed object storage, such as Ceph and Swift, is designed for handling unstructured data like text, audio, and video. Distributed unified storage supports block, file, and object storage, catering to the diverse needs of virtualization, cloud, and container platforms.

  • Classification by product form

When it comes to product forms, distributed storage can be delivered as appliances, pure hardware, or pure software. Appliances integrate hardware and software for high compatibility and performance. Pure hardware solutions, such as disk arrays and flash clusters, offer reliable storage for sensitive data. Pure software solutions provide customized application software and platform licenses, ideal for optimizing existing storage hardware in legacy data centers.

  • Classification by storage medium

Regarding storage mediums, distributed storage can be all-flash or hybrid. Distributed all-flash storage, composed entirely of SSDs, offers exceptionally high read and write speeds, making it suitable for performance-intensive applications. Distributed hybrid flash storage combines SSDs and HDDs, balancing cost and performance, and is currently the mainstream choice for many enterprises.

  • Classification by deployment method

Deployment methods for distributed storage include virtualization integration, container integration, and separation. Virtualization integration involves deploying storage and server virtualization on the same hardware node, simplifying architecture and reducing costs. Container integration is designed for environments like Kubernetes, offering seamless integration and efficient resource management. Lastly, the separation method keeps storage nodes and applications distinct, allowing flexible adaptation to different computing environments and ensuring scalability and performance for large-scale data storage needs.

Mainstream Technologies in Distributed Storage

  • Ceph

Currently, the most widely used distributed storage technology, Ceph, is the result of Sage’s doctoral studies, published in 2004 and subsequently contributed to the open-source community. It has garnered support from numerous cloud computing and storage vendors. Supporting object storage, block device storage, and file storage, it demands high technical proficiency in operations and maintenance. During Ceph expansion, its characteristic of balanced data distribution may lead to a decrease in overall system performance.

  • GPFS

Developed by IBM, GPFS is a shared file system, and many vendor products are based on it. It is a parallel disk file system that ensures all nodes within a resource group can access the entire file system in parallel. GPFS consists of network shared disks (NSD) and physical disks, allowing clients to share files distributed across different nodes’ disks, resulting in excellent performance. GPFS supports traditional centralized storage arbitration mechanisms and file locking, ensuring data security and integrity, which other distributed storage systems cannot match.

  • HDFS

HDFS (Hadoop Distibuted File System), a storage component of the Hadoop big data architecture, is primarily used for storing large data. It employs multi-copy data protection, suitable for low write and multiple read businesses. It has high data transfer throughput but poor data read latency, making it unsuitable for frequent data writes.

  • GFS

Google’s distributed file storage system, designed specifically for storing massive search data. The HDFS system was initially designed and implemented based on the concept of GFS (Google File System). Similarly suitable for large file read/write operations, it is unsuitable for small file storage. Ideal for processing large-scale file reads, requiring high bandwidth, and insensitive to data access latency for search-like businesses.

  • Swift

Swift is also an open-source storage project primarily oriented towards object storage, similar to the object storage service provided by Ceph. It is mainly used to address unstructured data storage issues, targeting object storage businesses that require high data processing efficiency but low data consistency. In OpenStack, the object storage service uses Swift rather than Ceph.

  • Lustre

An open-source cluster file system based on the Linux platform, jointly developed by HP, Intel, Cluster File System, and the U.S. Department of Energy, formally open-sourced in 2003, mainly used in the HPC supercomputing field. It supports tens of thousands of client systems and can support PB-level storage capacity, with a single file supporting a maximum of 320TB capacity. It supports RDMA networks and optimizes large file read/write fragmentation. It lacks a replica mechanism, leading to single points of failure. If a client or node fails, the data stored on that node will be inaccessible until it is restarted.

  • Amazon S3

Amazon S3(Simple Storage Service) is a cloud storage service provided by Amazon and belongs to distributed object storage. It allows users to store and retrieve any amount of data and provides high reliability and durability. It is widely used in backup, archiving, static website hosting, and other fields.

  • GlusterFS

GlusterFS is a scalable distributed file system that supports distributed data volumes and can store data across multiple servers. It adopts decentralized architecture, providing high availability and performance, suitable for large file storage and content distribution.

Applications of Distributed Storage

In the realm of modern technology, distributed storage has emerged as a pivotal solution, catering to a diverse array of needs across various sectors. Here’s how distributed storage is transforming data management:

  • Cloud Storage: At the core of cloud service providers, distributed storage facilitates elastic scalability and ensures data isolation and security in multi-tenant environments.
  • Big Data Analytics: Powering platforms like Hadoop with HDFS, distributed file systems enable the storage and processing of massive datasets, supporting large-scale data analytics.
  • Containerization and Microservices: With tools like Kubernetes, distributed storage offers persistent storage volumes, ensuring data persistence across containerized environments, vital for container orchestration and microservices architecture.
  • Media and Entertainment: Meeting the high-throughput and large-capacity demands of media storage and streaming services, distributed storage solutions excel in scenarios requiring seamless handling of multimedia content.
  • Enterprise Backup and Archiving: Leveraging its high scalability and cost-effectiveness, distributed storage emerges as an ideal choice for enterprise backup and long-term data archiving, ensuring data integrity and accessibility over extended periods.

In essence, distributed storage applications are revolutionizing data management practices, offering unparalleled scalability, resilience, and efficiency across a spectrum of industries.


In the rapidly evolving landscape of data centers, the shift from traditional storage systems to distributed storage solutions has become increasingly pivotal. This article explores the foundational knowledge of distributed storage, including its concepts, advantages, and classifications. We delve into mainstream technologies driving this innovation and highlight their diverse applications across various industries.As a leading technology company specializing in network solutions and telecommunication products, FS leverages advanced distributed storage to enhance data center operations, offering scalable and efficient solutions tailored to modern enterprise needs. Join us to explore further insights and knowledge, and discover our range of storage products.

Demystifying SFP and QSFP Ports for Switches

In the modern interconnected era, robust and effective network communication is crucial for the success of businesses. To ensure seamless connectivity, it is vital to grasp the underlying technologies involved. Among these technologies, SFP and QSFP ports on switches play a significant role. This article aims to simplify these concepts by providing clear definitions and highlighting the advantages and applications of SFP and QSFP ports on switches.

What are SFP and QSFP Ports?

SFP and QSFP ports are standardized interfaces used in network switches and other networking devices.

SFP ports are small in size and support a single transceiver module. They are commonly used for transmitting data at speeds of 1Gbps or 10Gbps. SFP ports are versatile and can support both copper and fiber optic connections. They are widely used for short to medium-range transmissions, typically within a few hundred meters. SFP ports offer flexibility as the transceiver modules can be easily replaced or upgraded without changing the entire switch.

QSFP ports are larger than SFP ports and can accommodate multiple transceiver modules. They are designed for higher data transmission rates, ranging from 40Gbps to 400Gbps. QSFP ports primarily support fiber optic connections, including single-mode and multimode fibers. They are commonly used for high-bandwidth applications and long-distance transmissions, ranging from a few meters to several kilometers. QSFP ports provide dense connectivity options, allowing for efficient utilization of network resources.

Differences between SFP and QSFP Ports

  • Physical Features and Specifications: SFP ports are smaller and support a single transceiver, while QSFP ports are larger and can accommodate multiple transceivers.
  • Data Transmission Rates: QSFP ports offer higher data transmission rates, such as 40Gbps or 100Gbps, compared to SFP ports, which typically support lower rates like 1Gbps or 10Gbps.
  • Connection Distances: QSFP ports can transmit data over longer distances, ranging from a few meters to several kilometers, while SFP ports are suitable for shorter distances within a few hundred meters.
  • Supported Fiber Types: QSFP ports can handle a wider range of fiber types, including single-mode and multimode fibers, whereas SFP ports are typically compatible with both fiber and copper cables.

Advantages and Applications of SFP and QSFP Ports

  1. Advantages of SFP Ports:
  • Flexibility: SFP ports allow for easy customization and scalability of network configurations.
  • Interchangeability: SFP modules can be hot-swapped, enabling quick upgrades or replacements.
  • Versatility: SFP ports support various transceiver types, including copper and fiber optics.
  • Cost-effectiveness: SFP ports offer selective deployment, reducing costs for lower-bandwidth connections.
  • Energy Efficiency: SFP ports consume less power, resulting in energy savings.
  1. Applications of SFP Ports:
  • Enterprise Networks: SFP ports connect switches, routers, and servers in flexible network expansions.
  • Data Centers: SFP ports enable high-speed connectivity for efficient data transmission.
  • Telecommunications: SFP ports are used in telecommunications networks for various applications.
  1. Advantages of QSFP Ports:
  • High Data Rates: QSFP ports support higher data transmission rates, ideal for bandwidth-intensive applications.
  • Dense Connectivity: QSFP ports provide multiple channels, allowing for efficient utilization of network resources.
  • Long-Distance Transmission: QSFP ports support long-range transmissions, spanning from meters to kilometers.
  • Fiber Compatibility: QSFP ports are primarily used for fiber optic connections, supporting single-mode and multimode fibers.
  1. Applications of QSFP Ports:
  • Data Centers: QSFP ports are essential for cloud computing, high-performance computing, and storage area networks.
  • High-Bandwidth Applications: QSFP ports are suitable for bandwidth-intensive applications requiring fast data transfer.
  • Long-Distance Connectivity: QSFP ports facilitate communication over extended distances in network infrastructures.

FS Ethernet Switch with SFP Ports: S5810-48FS

Reliable data transmission is essential for enterprises to thrive. In the previous article, we highlighted the benefits of SFP and QSFP ports in achieving high-speed data transmission. Now, we introduce the FS S5810-48FS, a gigabit Ethernet L3 switch recommended as a network solution. It serves as an aggregation switch for large-scale campus networks and a core switch for small to medium-sized enterprise networks, ensuring stable connectivity and efficient data transfer.

  • SFP Port Capability: The S5810-48FS is equipped with multiple SFP ports, providing flexibility for fiber optic connections. These ports allow for easy integration and expansion of network infrastructure while supporting various SFP transceivers.
  • Enhanced Performance: The S5810-48FS offers advanced Layer 2 and Layer 3 features, ensuring efficient and reliable data transmission. It has a high switching capacity, enabling smooth traffic flow in demanding network scenarios.
  • Easy Management: The switch supports various management options, including CLI (Command-Line Interface) and web-based management interfaces, making it user-friendly and easy to configure and monitor.
  • Security Features: The S5810-48FS incorporates enhanced security mechanisms, including Access Control Lists (ACLs), port security, and DHCP snooping, to protect the network from unauthorized access and potential threats.
  • Versatile Applications: The S5810-48FS is suitable for various applications requiring high-performance networking, such as enterprise networks, data centers, and telecommunications environments. With its SFP ports, it provides the flexibility to connect different network devices and accommodate diverse connectivity needs.
FS Ethernet Switch with SFP Ports: S5810-48FS


SFP and QSFP ports are crucial for reliable network communication. SFP ports provide flexibility and versatility, while QSFP ports offer high data rates and long-distance transmission. The FS S5810-48FS Ethernet switch with SFP ports serves as an effective solution for large-scale networks and small to medium-sized enterprises. By utilizing these technologies, businesses can achieve seamless connectivity and efficient data transmission. If you want to learn more, please visit FS.com.

Related Articles:

Understanding SFP and QSFP Ports on Switches | FS Community

Unlocking Advanced License Benefits in Enterprise Switches

Enterprise switches play a vital role in modern network architectures, facilitating efficient and secure data transfer within an organization. The Basic license provides standard features, while the Advanced license takes enterprise switches to a whole new level of power and functionality. This article aims to explore the concept of premium licenses in enterprise switches, highlight their importance and delve into the additional features and benefits they offer. We will also focus on the advanced license options available in FS Enterprise Switches, showcasing their capabilities and benefits.

Advanced License Basics

An advanced license is a type of high-level software license, which is not a tangible product but a software package. The advanced software license supports multiple advanced features such as MPLS, LDP, MPLS L2VPN, MPLS L3VPN, VXLAN-BGP-EVPN, IPFIX, etc. In enterprise switches, licenses act as authorization keys that unlock specific features and modules within the switch’s firmware.

Basic licenses typically provide standard functionalities such as data forwarding and basic security features. However, advanced licenses offer a wide range of additional functionalities and advantages, such as increased port counts, support for advanced routing protocols, and more granular traffic control. By understanding the different types of licenses, organizations can make informed decisions, select the appropriate license for their specific needs, and effectively take advantage of the features provided.

Advanced License

Unleashing the Full Potential of Advanced License

To fully unleash the potential of advanced licenses in enterprise switches and optimize network performance and security, organizations can leverage the following functionalities:

  • VLAN Partitioning: With advanced licenses, organizations can divide their switches into multiple Virtual Local Area Networks (VLANs). This enhances network security and provides greater management flexibility.
  • Quality of Service (QoS): Advanced licenses empower organizations to prioritize network traffic based on specific criteria, such as application type, source, or destination. This ensures that critical applications receive the necessary bandwidth and guarantees a higher quality user experience.
  • Advanced Routing Protocols: Advanced licenses often include support for advanced routing protocols such as Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) or Border Gateway Protocol (BGP). These protocols enable efficient and scalable routing within enterprise networks, enhancing network stability and performance.
  • Traffic Monitoring and Analysis: Advanced licenses may offer features for traffic monitoring and analysis, allowing organizations to gain insights into network traffic patterns, identify potential bottlenecks, and proactively optimize network performance.
  • Enhanced Security Features: Advanced licenses can provide additional security features such as Access Control Lists (ACLs) and Secure Shell (SSH) protocols. These features enhance network security by allowing organizations to control access to network resources and encrypt network communications.

FS Enterprise Switches with Advanced Licenses

FS Enterprise Switches with Advanced Licenses are suitable for organizations that require robust performance, scalability, and advanced networking capabilities. The S5800-48T4S is an FS enterprise switch with an advanced license. Built with advanced hardware and software, the S5800-48T4S delivers a robust Layer 3 routing solution for next-generation enterprise, data center, Metro, and HCI networks. Here are some key details about FS Enterprise Switches:

  • Advanced License Functions: The Advanced License includes a range of advanced networking functions to enhance the capabilities of the switches. These functions include MPLS, LDP, MPLS-L2VPN, MPLS-L3VPN, VxLAN-BGP-EVPN, and IPFIX.
  • Network Protocols and Features: The switch supports multiple network protocols and features to optimize network performance and security. These include MLAG for link aggregation and redundancy, a DHCP server for automatic IP address assignment, and support for IPv4 and IPv6 routing.
  • Management and Monitoring: FS Enterprise Switches with Advanced Licenses offer comprehensive management and monitoring capabilities. They support protocols like SNMP for network monitoring and can be managed using software-defined network (SDN) solutions through RPC-API.
  • Security Features: The switches provide advanced security features to protect the network and ensure secure access. These features include support for ACL for traffic filtering, MAC whitelisting for controlling access based on MAC addresses, ARP inspection for preventing ARP spoofing attacks, IP source guard to validate IP packet sources, and IEEE802.1X RADIUS authentication for secure user access.
FS Enterprise Switches with Advanced Licenses

ConclusionAdvanced licenses in enterprise switches unlock powerful functionalities that enhance network performance and security. FS enterprise switches offer comprehensive advanced license options to meet diverse network requirements. By leveraging advanced licenses, organizations can optimize their network infrastructure and achieve a robust and efficient network. If you want to learn more, please visit FS.com.

Related Articles:

Introducing the Advanced License of Enterprise Switches | FS Community

Wi-Fi Setup with SOHO Network Switch: Step-by-Step Guide

In today’s digital age, Wi-Fi has become an integral part of our daily lives, enabling seamless connectivity and access to information. For small businesses and home offices, a stable and efficient Wi-Fi network is essential for productivity and communication. This article aims to provide a comprehensive step-by-step guide on setting up Wi-Fi using a Small Office/Home Office (SOHO) network switch.

Understanding SOHO Network Switches and Their Advantages

Before we dive into the setup process, it’s important to understand what SOHO network switches are and how they help build a reliable Wi-Fi network. SOHO network switches are designed for small networks and offer many advantages. They enhance network bandwidth and ensure smooth and uninterrupted data flow. Additionally, they provide stable connections, eliminate lag and reduce network congestion. In addition, SOHO network switches support multi-device connections to meet the needs of modern enterprises and homes.

Evaluating Wi-Fi Needs and Choosing the Right SOHO Network Switch

To begin the setup process, it’s important to evaluate your Wi-Fi requirements. Consider the scale of your network and the coverage range needed. Determine the number of devices that will connect to the Wi-Fi network and the required bandwidth to accommodate their usage. These considerations will help you select the most suitable SOHO network switch for your specific needs. Compare different models based on their features, performance, and scalability. FS S3150-8T2FP switch is based on the high-performance hardware and FSOS platform, it supports functions such as ACL, QinQ and QoS. Its simple management mode and flexible installation can meet the requirement of any complicated scenarios. This access switch delivers a compact, cost-effective solution for carrier’s IP MAN and enterprise networks.

Setting Up the SOHO Network Switch and Wi-Fi Network

Once you have chosen the appropriate SOHO network switch, it’s time to proceed with the setup. This section will guide you through the necessary steps to establish your Wi-Fi network.

  1. Connecting Network Devices and Basic Configuration: Connect the SOHO network switch to your modem or router using an Ethernet cable. Then, connect other network devices like computers and printers to the switch using Ethernet cables. Perform basic configurations such as assigning IP addresses and configuring network settings.
  2. Creating the Wi-Fi Network and Setting Security Measures: Access the management interface of the SOHO network switch through a web browser using its IP address. In the interface, set up the Wi-Fi network by choosing a name (SSID) and password. Enable encryption (WPA2 is recommended) to protect data transmitted over the network. Configure firewall settings and access controls to enhance network security.
  3. Extending Wi-Fi Coverage Range and Signal Optimization: Identify areas with weak Wi-Fi coverage by checking signal strength in different parts of your space. Install additional access points or Wi-Fi range extenders strategically to expand coverage, ensuring a strong signal throughout. Optimize signal strength by adjusting the placement of network devices and antennas, avoiding obstacles and interference sources. Consider implementing mesh networking technology for seamless coverage across larger areas.

By following these steps, you can successfully set up your SOHO network switch and establish a secure and reliable Wi-Fi network. Remember to regularly update the firmware of your network switch for improved performance and security.

Applications and Management of Business Wi-Fi

Beyond the initial setup, it’s essential to explore the applications and management of your business Wi-Fi network.

  • Guest Networks and Access Control: Set up a separate guest network and implement access controls to ensure security and limit unauthorized access.
  • Performance Management: Monitor and optimize Wi-Fi performance by adjusting settings, minimizing interference, and regularly updating firmware and software.
  • Network Security and Privacy: Regularly review and update security settings, use strong passwords, consider additional security measures like VPNs, and educate users about secure Wi-Fi practices.


Setting up Wi-Fi using a SOHO network switch is a crucial step for small businesses and home offices in achieving a stable and efficient wireless connection. By understanding the advantages of SOHO network switches, evaluating Wi-Fi needs, and following the step-by-step guide provided in this article, users can establish a robust Wi-Fi network tailored to their specific requirements. Regular management and maintenance of the Wi-Fi network are essential for ensuring continued stability, security, and high performance. By prioritizing network needs, security, and performance optimization, businesses and households can enjoy the benefits of a reliable and efficient wireless connection. If you want to learn more, please visit FS.com.

Related Articles:

Steps to set up WiFi using a soho network switch | FS Community

Boost Network with Advanced Switches for Cloud Management

In today’s rapidly evolving digital landscape, cloud computing and effective cloud management have become crucial for businesses. This article aims to explore how advanced switching solutions can enhance network cloud management capabilities, enabling organizations to optimize their cloud environments.

What is Cloud Management?

Cloud management refers to the exercise of control over public, private or hybrid cloud infrastructure resources and services. This involves both manual and automated oversight of the entire cloud lifecycle, from provisioning cloud resources and services, through workload deployment and monitoring, to resource and performance optimizations, and finally to workload and resource retirement or reallocation.

A well-designed cloud management strategy can help IT pros control those dynamic and scalable cloud computing environments. Cloud management enables organizations to maximize the benefits of cloud computing, including scalability, flexibility, cost-effectiveness, and agility. It ensures efficient resource utilization, high performance, greater security, and alignment with business goals and regulations.

Challenges in Cloud Management

Cloud management can be a complex undertaking, with challenges in important areas including security, cost management, governance and compliance, automation, provisioning and monitoring.

  • Resource Management: Efficiently allocating and optimizing cloud resources can be complex, especially in dynamic environments with fluctuating workloads. Organizations need to ensure proper resource provisioning to avoid underutilization or overprovisioning.
  • Security: Protecting sensitive data and ensuring compliance with regulations is a top concern in cloud environments. Organizations must implement robust security measures, including access controls, encryption, and vulnerability management, to safeguard data and prevent unauthorized access or breaches.
  • Scalability: As businesses grow, their cloud infrastructure must be scalable to accommodate increased demand without compromising performance. Ensuring the ability to scale resources up or down dynamically is crucial for maintaining optimal operations.

To address these challenges, organizations rely on cloud management tools and advanced switches. Cloud management tools provide centralized control, monitoring, and automation capabilities, enabling efficient management and optimization of cloud resources. They offer features such as resource provisioning, performance monitoring, cost optimization, and security management.Advanced switches play a vital role in ensuring network performance and scalability. They provide high-speed connectivity, traffic management, and advanced features like Quality of Service (QoS) and load balancing. These switches help organizations achieve reliable and efficient network connectivity within their cloud infrastructure.

Advantages of FS Advanced Switches in Cloud Management

Selecting a switch with cloud management capabilities is crucial for ensuring smooth operations. FS S5810 series switches seamlessly integrate with cloud management tools, enabling comprehensive network management and optimization. These enterprise switches come with the superior FS Airware to deliver managed cloud services.

FS S5810 Series Switches for the Cloud-managed Network

FS Airware introduces a cloud-based network deployment and management model. The network hardware is still deployed locally, while the management functions are migrated to the cloud (usually referred to as public cloud). This approach allows administrators to centrally manage the network from any location using user-friendly graphical interfaces accessible through web pages or mobile applications. With FS S5810 series switches and FS Airware, you can enjoy the following benefits:

  1. Centralized Visibility and Control: With FS Airware, enterprises can centrally monitor and manage network resources, applications, and services. This provides continuous oversight and control, enhancing operational efficiency and ensuring peace of mind.
  2. IT Agility and Efficiency: FS Airware enables remote management, remote operations and maintenance (O&M), and mobile O&M across the internet. This reduces costs and offers automatic troubleshooting and optimization capabilities, leading to increased operational efficiency and a competitive edge.
  3. Data and Privacy Security: FS S5810 switches support various security features such as hardware-based IPv6 ACLs, hardware CPU protection mechanisms, DHCP snooping, Secure Shell (SSH), SNMPv3, and Network Foundation Protection Policy (NFPP). These functions and protection mechanisms ensure reliable and secure data forwarding and management, meeting the needs of enterprise networks.
  4. Easy Switch Management: FS Airware simplifies the deployment and management of switches across individual branches. It enables remote centralized deployment and management, significantly enhancing management efficiency.

By combining the FS S5810 Series switches with FS Airware, organizations can achieve centralized visibility and control, enhance agility and efficiency, increase data and privacy security, and simplify switch management across cloud network infrastructure.


In conclusion, as cloud computing continues to dominate the digital landscape, efficient cloud management is critical for enterprises to remain competitive and agile. Advanced switching solutions, such as the FS S5810 Series with FS Airware, enable enterprises to overcome resource allocation, security and scalability challenges. Advanced network hardware and cloud-based management tools work together to create an optimized cloud environment. If you want to learn more about FS S5810 enterprise switches and the network platform Airware, please visit FS.com.

Related Articles:

Achieve Cloud Management with Advanced Switch Solutions | FS Community

How 400G Ethernet Influences Enterprise Networks?

Since the approval of its relevant 802.3bs standard from the IEEE in 2017, 400GbE Ethernet has become the talk of the town. The main reason behind it is the ability of this technology to beat the existing solutions by a mile. With its implementation, the current data transfer speeds will simply see a fourfold increase. Vigorous efforts are being made by the cloud service providers and network infrastructure vendors to pace up the deployment. However, there are a number of challenges that can hamper its effective implementation and hence, the adoption.

In this article, we will have a detailed look into the opportunities and the challenges linked to the successful implementation of 400G Ethernet enterprise network. This will provide a clear picture of the impact this technology will have on large-scale organizations.

Opportunities for 400G Ethernet Enterprise Networks

  • Better management of the traffic over video streaming services
  • Facilitates IoT device requirements
  • Improved data transmission density

How can 400G Ethernet assist enterprise networks in handling growing traffic demands?

Rise of 5G connectivity

Rising traffic and bandwidth demands are compelling the CSPs for rapid adoption of 5G both at the business as well as the customer end. A successful implementation requires a massive increase in bandwidth to cater for the 5G backhaul. In addition, 400G can provide CSPs with a greater density in small cells development. 5G deployment requires the cloud data centers to be brought closer to the users as well as the devices. This streamlines the edge computing (handling time-sensitive data) part, which is another game-changer in this area.5G

Data Centers Handling Video Streaming Services Traffic

The introduction of 400GbE Ethernet has brought a great opportunity for the data centers working behind the video streaming services as Content Delivery Networks. This is because the growing demand for bandwidth is going out of hand using the current technology. As the number of users increased, the introduction of better quality streams like HD and 4K has put additional pressure on the data consumption. Therefore, the successful implementation of 400GbE would come as a sigh of relief for the data centers. Apart from rapid data transferability, issues like jitter will also be brought down. Furthermore, large amounts of data transfer over a single wavelength will also bring down the maintenance cost.

High-Performance Computing (HPC)

The application of high-performance computing is in every industry sub-vertical whether it is healthcare, retail, oil & gas or weather forecasting. Real-time analysis of data is required in each of these fields and it is going to be a driver for the 400G growth. The combined power of HPC and 400G will bring out every bit of performance from the infrastructure leading to financial and operational efficiency.400G Ethernet

Addressing the Internet of Things (IoT) Traffic Demands

Another opportunity that resides in this solution is for the data centers to manage IoT needs. Data generated by the IoT devices is not large; it is the aggregation of the connections that actually hurts. Working together, these devices open new pathways over internet and Ethernet networks which leads to an exponential increase in the traffic. A fourfold increase in the data transfer speed will make it considerably convenient for the relevant data centers to gain the upper hand in this race.

Greater Density for Hyperscale Data Centers

In order to meet the increasing data needs, the number of data centers is also seeing a considerable increase. A look at the relevant stats reveals that 111 new Hyperscale data centers were set up during the last two years, and 52 out of them were initiated during peak COVID times when the logistical issues were also seeing an unprecedented increase. In view of this fact, every data center coming to the fore is looking to setup 400GbE. Provision of greater density in fiber, racks, and switches via 400GbE would help them incorporate huge and complex computing and networking requirements while minimizing the ESG footprint at the same time.

Easier Said Than Done: What Are the Challenges In 400G Ethernet technology

Below are some of the challenges enterprise data centers are facing in 400G implementation.

Cost and Power Consumption

Today’s ecosystem of 400G transceivers and DSP are power-intensive. Currently, some transceivers don’t support the latest MSA. They are developed uniquely by different vendors using their proprietary technology.

Overall, the aim is to reduce $/gigabit and watts/gigabit.

The Need for Real-World Networking Plugfests

Despite the standard being approved by IEEE, a number of modifications still need to be made in various areas like specifications, manufacturing, and design. Although the conducted tests have shown promising results, the interoperability needs to be tested in real-world networking environments. This would outline how this technology is actually going to perform in enterprise networks. In addition, any issues faced at any layer of the network will be highlighted.

Transceiver Reliability

Secondly, transceiver reliability also comes as a major challenge in this regard. Currently, the relevant manufacturers are finding it hard to meet the device power budget. The main reason behind that is the use of a relatively older design of QSFP transceiver form factor as it was originally designed for 40GbE. Problems in meeting the device power budget lead to issues like heating, optical distortions, and packet loss.

The Transition from NRZ to PAM-4

Furthermore, the shift from binary non-return to zero to pulse amplitude modulation with the introduction of 400GbE also poses a challenge for encoding and decoding. This is because NRZ was a familiar set of optical coding whereas PAM-4 requires involvement of extensive hardware and an enhanced level of sophistication. Mastering this form of coding would require time, even for a single manufacturer.from NRZ to PAM-4

Greater Risk of Link Flaps

Enterprise use of 400GbE also increases the risk of link flaps. Link flaps are defined as the phenomenon involving rapid disconnection in an optical connection. Whenever such a scenario occurs, auto-negotiation and link-training are performed before the data is allowed to flow again. While using 400GbE, link flaps can occur due to a number of additional reasons like problems with the switch, design problems with the -transceiver, or heat.


The true deployment of 400GbE Ethernet enterprise network is undoubtedly going to ease management for cloud service providers and networking vendors. However, it is still a bumpy road. With the modernization and rapid advancements in technology, scalability is going to become a lot easier for the data centers. Still, we are still a long way from the destination of a successful implementation. With higher data transfer rates easing traffic management, a lot of risks to the fiber alignment and packet loss still need to be tackled.

Article Source: How 400G Ethernet Influences Enterprise Networks?

Related Articles:

PAM4 in 400G Ethernet application and solutions

400G OTN Technologies: Single-Carrier, Dual-Carrier and Quad-Carrier

How Is 5G Pushing the 400G Network Transformation?

With the rapid technological disruption and the wholesale shift to digital, several organizations are now adopting 5G networks, thanks to the fast data transfer speeds and improved network reliability. The improved connectivity also means businesses can expand on their service delivery and even enhance user experiences, increasing market competitiveness and revenue generated.

Before we look at how 5G is driving the adoption of 400G transformation, let’s first understand what 5G and 400G are and how the two are related.

What is 5G?

5G is the latest wireless technology that delivers multi-Gbps peak data speeds and ultra-low latency. This technology marks a massive shift in communication with the potential to greatly transform how data is received and transferred. The increased reliability and a more consistent user experience also enable an array of new applications and use cases extending beyond network computing to include distributed computing.

And while the future of 5G is still being written, it’s already creating a wealth of opportunities for growth & innovation across industries. The fact that tech is constantly evolving and that no one knows exactly what will happen next is perhaps the fascinating aspect of 5G and its use cases. Whatever the future holds, one is likely certain: 5G will provide far more than just a speedier internet connection. It has the potential to disrupt businesses and change how customers engage and interact with products and services.

What is 400G?

400G or 400G Ethernet is the next generation of cloud infrastructure that offers a four-fold jump in max data-transfer speed from the standard maximum of 100G. This technology addresses the tremendous bandwidth demands on network infrastructure providers, partly due to the massive adoption of digital transformation initiatives.

Additionally, exponential data traffic growth driven by cloud storage, AI, and Machine Learning use cases has seen 400G become a key competitive advantage in the networking and communication world. Major data centers are also shifting to quicker, more scalable infrastructures to keep up with the ever-growing number of users, devices, and applications. Hence high-capacity connection is becoming quite critical.

How are 5G and 400G Related?

The 5G wireless technology, by default, offers greater speeds, reduced latencies, and increased data connection density. This makes it an attractive option for highly-demanding applications such as industrial IoT, smart cities, autonomous vehicles, VR, and AR. And while the 5G standard is theoretically powerful, its real-world use cases are only as good as the network architecture this wireless technology relies on.

The low-latency connections required between devices, data centers, and the cloud demands a reliable and scalable implementation of the edge-computing paradigms. This extends further to demand greater fiber densification at the edge and substantially higher data rates on the existing fiber networks. Luckily, 400G fills these networking gaps, allowing carriers, multiple-system operators (MSOs), and data center operators to streamline their operations to meet most of the 5G demands.

5G Use Cases Accelerating 400G transformation

As the demand for data-intensive services increases, organizations are beginning to see some business sense in investing in 5G and 400G technologies. Here are some of the major 5G applications driving 400G transformation.

High-Speed Video Streaming

The rapid adoption of 5G technology is expected to take the over-the-top viewing experience to a whole new level as demand for buffer-free video streaming, and high-quality content grows. Because video consumes the majority of mobile internet capacity today, the improved connectivity will give new opportunities for digital streaming companies. Video-on-demand (VOD) enthusiasts will also bid farewell to video buffering, thanks to the 5G network’s ultra-fast download speeds and super-low latency. Still, 400G Ethernet is required to ensure reliable power, efficiency, and density to support these applications.

Virtual Gaming

5G promises a more captivating future for gamers. The network’s speed enhances high-definition live streaming, and thanks to ultra-low latency, 5G gaming won’t be limited to high-end devices with a lot of processing power. In other words, high-graphics games can be displayed and controlled by a mobile device; however, processing, retrieval, and storage can all be done in the cloud.

Use cases such as low-latency Virtual Reality (VR) apps, which rely on fast feedback and near-real-time response times to give a more realistic experience, also benefit greatly from 5G. And as this wireless network becomes the standard, the quantity and sophistication of these applications are expected to peak. That is where 400G data centers and capabilities will play a critical role.

The Internet of Things (IoT)

Over the years, IoT has grown and become widely adopted across industries, from manufacturing and production to security and smart home deployments. Today, 5G and IoT are poised to allow applications that would have been unthinkable a few years ago. And while this ultra-fast wireless technology promises low latency and high network capacity to overcome the most significant barriers to IoT proliferation, the network infrastructure these applications rely on is a key determining factor. Taking 5G and IoT to the next level means solving the massive bandwidth demands while delivering high-end flexibility that gives devices near real-time ability to sense and respond.

400G Network

400G Ethernet as a Gateway to High-end Optical Networks

Continuous technological improvements and the increasing amount of data generated call for solid network infrastructures that support fast, reliable, and efficient data transfer and communication. Not long ago, 100G and 200G were considered sophisticated network upgrades, and things are getting even better.

Today, operators and service providers that were among the first to deploy 400G are already reaping big from their investments. Perhaps one of the most compelling features of 400G isn’t what it offers at the moment but rather its ability to accommodate further upgrades to 800G and beyond. What’s your take on 5G and 400G, or your progress in deploying these novel technologies?

Article Source: How Is 5G Pushing the 400G Network Transformation?

Related Articles:

Typical Scenarios for 400G Network: A Detailed Look into the Application Scenarios

What’s the Current and Future Trend of 400G Ethernet?

400G Optics in Hyperscale Data Centers

Since their advent, data centers have been striving hard to address the rising bandwidth requirements. A look at the stats reveals that 3.04 Exabytes of data is being generated on a daily basis. Whenever a hyperscale data center is taken into consideration, the bandwidth requirements are massive as the relevant applications require a preemptive approach due to their scalable nature. As the introduction of 400G data centers has taken the data transfer speed to a whole new level, it has brought significant convenience in addressing various areas of concern. In this article, we will dig a little deeper and try to answer the following questions:

  • What are the driving factors of 400G development?
  • What are the reasons behind the use of 400G optics in hyperscale data centers?
  • What are the trends in 400G devices in large-scale data centers?

What Are the Driving Factors For 400G Development?

The driving factors for 400G development are segregated into video streaming services and video conferencing services. These services require pretty high data transfer speeds in order to function smoothly across the globe.

Video Streaming Services

Video streaming services were already taking a toll on the bandwidth requirements. That, combined with the COVID-19 pandemic, forced a large population to stay and work from home. This automatically increased the usage of video streaming platforms. A look at the stats reveals that a medium-quality stream on Netflix consumes 0.8 GB per hour. See that in relation to over 209 million subscribers. As the traveling costs came down, the savings went to improved quality streams on Netflix like HD and 4K. What stood at 0.8 GB per hour rose to 3 and 7 GB per hour. This evolved the need for 400G development.

Video Conferencing Services

As COVID-19 made working from home the new norm, video conferencing services also saw a major boost. Till 2021, 20.56 million people have been reported to be working from home in the US alone. As video conferencing took center stage, Zoom, which consumes 500 MB per hour, saw a huge increase in its user base. This also puts great pressure on the data transfer needs.

What Makes 400G Optics the Ideal Choice For Hyperscale Data Centers?

Significant Decrease in Energy and Carbon Footprint

To put it simply, 400G raises the data transfer speed four times. 400G reduces the cost of 100G ports as breakouts when comparing a 4 x 100G solution to facilitate 400GbE with a single 400G solution to do the same. A single node at the output minimizes the risk of failures as well as lower the energy requirement. This brings down the ESG footprint that has become a KPI for the organizations going forward.

Reduced Operational Cost

As mentioned earlier, a 400G solution requires a single 400G port, whereas addressing the same requirement via a 100G solution requires four 100G ports. On a router, four ports cost way more than a single port that can facilitate rapid data transfer. The same is the case with power. Combined together, these two bring the operational cost down to a considerable extent.400G Optics

Trends of 400G Optics in Large-Scale Data Centers—Quick Adoption

The introduction of 400G solution in large-scale data centers has reshaped the entire sector. This is due to a humongous increase in the data transfer speeds. According to research, 400G is expected to replace 100G and 200G deployments way faster than its predecessors. Since its introduction, more and more vendors are upgrading to network devices that support 400G. The following image truly depicts the technology adoption rate.Trends of 400G Optics

Challenges Ahead

Lack of Advancement in the 400G Optical Transceivers sector

Although the shift towards such network devices is rapid, there are a number of implementation challenges. This is because it is not only the devices that need to be upgraded but also the infrastructure. Vendors are trying to upgrade them in order to stay ahead of the curve but the cost of the development and maturity of optical transceivers is not at the expected benchmark. The same is the case with their cost and reliability. As optical transceivers are a critical element, this comes as a major challenge in the deployment of 400G solutions.

Latency Measurement

In addition, the introduction of this solution has also made network testing and monitoring more important than ever. Latency measurement has always been a key indicator when evaluating performance. Data throughput combined with jitter and frame loss also comes as a major concern in this regard.

Investment in Network Layers

Lastly, the creation of a plug-and-play environment for this solution also needs to be more realistic. This will require a greater investment in the physical, higher level, and network-IP components layers.


Rapid technological advancements have led to concepts like the Internet of Things. These implementations require greater data transfer speeds. That, combined with the world going to remote work, has exponentially increased the traffic. Hyperscale data centers were already feeling the pressure and the introduction of 400G data centers is a step in the right direction. It is a preemptive approach to address the growing global population and the increasing number of internet users.

Article Source: 400G Optics in Hyperscale Data Centers

Related Articles:

How Many 400G Transceiver Types Are in the Market?

Global Optical Transceiver Market: Striding to High-Speed 400G Transceivers

100G NIC: An Irresistible Trend in Next-Generation 400G Data Center

NIC, short for network interface card, which can be called network interface controller, network adapter or LAN adapter, allows a networking device to communicate with other networking devices. Without NIC, networking can hardly be done. There are NICs with different types and speeds, such as wireless and wired NIC, from 10G to 100G. Among them, 100G NIC, as a product appearing in recent years, hasn’t taken a large market share yet. This post gives a description of 100G NIC and the trends in NIC as follows.

What Is 100G NIC?

NIC is installed on a computer and used for communicating over a network with another computer, server or other network devices. It comes in many different forms but there are two main different types of NIC: wired NIC and wireless NIC. Wireless NICs use wireless technologies to access the network, while wired NICs use DAC cable or transceiver and fiber patch cable. The most popular wired LAN technology is Ethernet. In terms of its application field, it can be divided into computer NIC card and server NIC card. For client computers, one NIC is needed in most cases. However, for servers, it makes sense to use more than one NIC to meet the demand for handling more network traffic. Generally, one NIC has one network interface, but there are still some server NICs that have two or more interfaces built in a single card.

100G NIC

Figure 1: FS 100G NIC

With the expanding of data center from 10G to 100G, 25G server NIC has gained a firm foothold in the NIC market. In the meantime, the growth in demand for bandwidth is driving data center to higher bandwidth, 200G/400G and 100G transceivers have been widespread, which paves the way for 100G server.

How to Select 100G NIC?

How to choose the best 100G NIC from all the vendors? If you are stuck in this puzzle, see the following section listing recommendations and considerations to consider.


Connector types like RJ45, LC, FC, SC are commonly used connectors on NIC. You should check the connector type supported by NIC. Today many networks are only using RJ45, so it may be not that hard to choose the NIC for the right connector type as it has been in the past. Even so, some network may utilize a different interface such as coax. Therefore, check if the card you are planning to buy supports this connection before purchasing.

Bus Type

PCI is a hardware bus used for adding internal components to the computer. There are three main PCI bus types used by servers and workstations now: PCI, PCI-X and PCI-E. Among them, PCI is the most conventional one. It has a fixed width of 32 bits and can handle only 5 devices at a time. PCI-X is a higher upgraded version, providing more bandwidth. With the emergence of PCI-E, PCI-X cards are gradually replaced. PCI-E is a serial connection so that devices no longer share bandwidth like they do on a normal bus. Besides, there are different physical sizes of PCI-E card in the market: x16, x8, x4, and x1. Before purchasing a 100G NIC, it is necessary to make sure which PCI version and slot width can be compatible with your current equipment and network environment.

Hot swappable

There are some NICs that can be installed and removed without shutting down the system, which helps minimize downtime by allowing faulty devices to be replaced immediately. While you are choosing your 100G NIC, be sure to check if it supports hot swapping.

Trends in NIC

NICs were commonly used in desktop computers in the 1990s and early 2000s. Up to now, it has been widely used in servers and workstations with different types and rates. With the popularization of wireless networking and WiFi, wireless NICs gradually grows in popularity. However, wired cards are still popular for relatively immobile network devices owing to the reliable connections.NICs have been upgrading for years. As data centers are expanding at an unprecedented pace and driving the need for higher bandwidth between the server and switches, networking is moving from 10G to 25G and even 100G. Companies like Intel and Mellanox have launched their 100G NIC in succession.

During the upgrading from 10G to 100G in data centers, 25G server connectivity popularized for 100G migration can be realized by 4 strands of 25G. 25G NIC is still the mainstream. However, considering the fact that the overall bandwidth for data centers grows quickly and hardware upgrade cycles for data centers occur every two years, the ethernet speed can be faster than we expect. 400G data center is just on the horizon. It stands a good chance that 100G NIC will play an integral role in next-generation 400G networking.

Meanwhile, the need of 100G NIC will drive the demand for other network devices as well. For instance, 100G transceiver, the device between NIC and network, is bound to pervade. Now 100G transceivers are provided by many brands with different types such as CXP, CFP, QSFP28 transceivers,etc. FS supplies a full series of compatible 100G QSFP28 and CFP transceivers that can be matched with the major brand of 100G Ethernet NIC, such as Mellanox and Intel.


Nowadays with the hyping of the next generation cellular technology, 5G, the higher bandwidth is needed for data flow, which paves the way for 100G NIC. On the occasion, 100G transceivers and 400G network switches will be in great need. We believe that the new era of 5G networks will see the popularization of 100G NIC and change towards a new era of network performance.

Article Source: 100G NIC: An Irresistible Trend in Next-Generation 400G Data Center

Related Articles:

400G QSFP Transceiver Types and Fiber Connections

How Many 400G Transceiver Types Are in the Market?