Tag Archives: copper wire

The Core Technology Of WIRING

1. High-precision Optical Time Domain Reflectometer(ODTR)

OTDR Price technology through sending a test signal in the measured line while monitoring signal in the line of reflection phase and intensity. If the signal through the cable encounter mutation of an impedance, part or all of the signals will be reflected back, the reflected signal delay, size and polarity indicate the discontinuity position and feature of the special impedance in the cable.

2. Split Pairs

UTP(Unshielded Twisted Pair) cable is two insulated Copper Ethernet Cable twisted together to each other by a certain density, which reduces the degree of signal interference, each wire in the transmission of radiation waves are offset by radio waves from the other line.

The so-called split pairs is the original two pairs are opened and yet again to reform a new pair. Because when this failure occurs, the end-to-end connectivity is good, so use a multimeter or hand tool such tools can not check it out. Only with a dedicated cable tester to check it out. Since crosstalk on the related lines of no kink, so online pairs when signal through will produce a high near-end crosstalk (NEXT).

Split pairs normally also be used, but often crosstalk index is large, only to run in the 10M application, can not achieve the 100M application.

3. The Standard Twisted Pair Terminations

Twisted pair eight lines are inserted into the plug (or termination) according to the standard. There are two termination criteria: EIA/TIA T568A/T568B, no essential difference between them, but the difference between color. The natural problem of termination is to ensure that: 1, 2 are a pair; 3, 6 are a pair; 4, 5 are a pair; 7, 8 are a pair. Note: Do not one cable end with T568A, but the other end with T568B. The mix use of T568A/T568B is a special connection method of cross connection. Projects more use T568B wire method.

In Ethernet, Pin1, Pin2 is a twisted pair responsible for network data transmission, Pin3, pin6 is a twisted pair responsible for network data reception, so 1, 2 a pair, 3, 6 a pair, 4, 5 a pair, 7, 8 a pair, it is a must, and not 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 pairs, so called split pairs, will lead to serious signal leakage.

4. Wire Map

Ware Map: This is to confirm the integrity of link connection, mainly to check each pair of 8-core Twisted Pair Cable whether meets the required standards EIA/TIA- 568A/568B, whether the wire at both ends of cable is matching. If wrong, there are five cases include open circuit, short circuit, crossed pairs, reversed pair and split pairs.

● Open circuit: refers to the phenomenon of line off, generally due to bad crystal head cable connection, common with the cable test equipment can locate the fault point.

● Short circuit: refers to one or more wires touch each other in a metal core, resulting in a short circuit.

● Crossed pairs: refers to wire at both ends error in the routing process, which is one end with 568A and the other end with the 568B, usually such wire method used in network equipments level, or network cards connection, but as a general wiring to say, as long as the two ends of the wire method consistent, as for the module wire method can refer to the color above.

● Reversed pairs: this error is due to both ends of a pair line connected to the positive and negative error, is generally believed that the odd line number for the positive electrode, the even line as the negative electrode, for example, 568B Pin1 orange white lines to the first pair of positive, Pin2 Orange Line is negative, it can form a direct current loop, reverse connection is positive and negative confused in the same pair line.

● Split pairs: this is one of the common wire error, which is not strictly comply with wire standard, it is specified in the standard that 1, 2 is the first pair, 3, 6, is the second pair, if 3, 4 into the second pair will cause large signal leakage, which produces NEXT (near end crosstalk), this will cause the user’s Internet difficulties or indirect interrupts, especially in the 1000Mbps network it is particularly obvious.

Choosing Fiber Optic Cable Or Copper Wire For Communication

When computer networks were invented, copper wiring was used for the cables that handled the Internet. But nowadays fiber optic cable is more often used for new cabling installations and upgrades, including backbone, horizontal, and even desktop applications. They are more favored for today’s high-speed data communications, such as Gigabit Ethernet, FDDI, multimedia, ATM, SONET, Fiber Channel, or any other network that requires the transfer of large, bandwidth-consuming data files, particularly over long distances.

Fiber optic cables offer a number of advantages over copper.

Lower Cost–While fiber optic cable itself is cheaper than an equivalent length of copper cable, fiber optic cable connectors and the equipment needed to install them are more expensive than their copper counterparts.

Long Distance And High Capacity–Fiber optic cables carry communication signals using pulses of light. Only fiber optics can go the long distance. Not only is fiber optic cable capable of carrying far more data than copper, it also has the ability to carry that information for much longer distances. Fiber to the Home (FTTH) installations are becoming more common as a way to bring ultra-high speed Internet service (100 Mbps and higher) to residences.

Higher Bandwith–Fiber has a higher bandwidth than copper. Example: cat6 network cable is classified by the Telecommunications Industry Association (TIA) to handle a bandwidth up to 600 MHz over 100 meters, which theoretically, could carry around 18,000 calls at the same time. Multimode Fiber, on the other hand, would have a bandwidth of over 1000 MHz which could carry almost 31,000 simultaneous calls.

Adaptable To Any Environment–Fiber optic cables don’t mind roughing it. Since fiber optic cables are glass-based, glass fibers don’t only escape interference. They are virtually free from the threat of corrosion, too. While copper cabling is sensitive to water and chemicals, fiber optic cabling runs almost no risk of being damaged by harsher elements. Fiber optic cables can be used outdoors — and in close proximity to electrical cables –without concern. As a result, fiber optic cable can easily endure “living conditions” that coaxial cable just can’t, such as being put in direct contact with soil, or in close proximity to chemicals.

For reasons stated above, fiber optic cable is a more reliable means of communication. While the decision on using copper cables or fiber optic cables may be difficult. It will often depend on your current network, your future networking needs, and your particular application, including bandwidth, distances, environment, and cost. While in some cases, copper may be a better choice.

Copper works on simple ADSL connections since there is not much of a distance from a modem to a phone jack on a wall. Copper usually transmits data without loss at distances of two kilometers or less. On top of all that, the demand for bandwidth in an ADSL connection is often low enough (around 6 to 8 Mbps on average) to use copper wires.

As the mature of fiber optic cables production, they are more affordable. Choosing fiber optic cables or copper wire for your communication is completely up to your future networking needs and your particular application.