Author Archives: Miko.Wang

Five Basics About Fiber Optic Cables

A fiber optic cable is a network cable that contains strands of glass fibers inside an insulated casing. They’re designed for high performance data networking and telecommunications. Fiber optic cables carry communication signals using pulses of light, faster than copper cabling which uses electricity. They are becoming the most significant communication media in data center. Then how much do you know about them? This post serves as a guide for beginners.

Fiber Components

The three basic elements of a fiber optic cable are the core, cladding and coating. Core is the light transmission area of the fiber, either glass or plastic. The larger the core, the more light that will be transmitted into the fiber. The function of the cladding is to provide a lower refractive index at the core interface, causing reflection within the core. Therefore the light waves can be transmitted through the fiber. Coatings are usually multi-layers of plastics applied to preserve fiber strength, absorb shock and provide extra fiber protection.

Fiber Components

Fiber Type

Generally, there are two basic types of fiber optic cables: single mode fiber (SMF) and multimode fiber (MMF). Furthermore, multimode fiber cores may be either step index or graded index.

Single mode and multi-mode fiber-optic cables

Single mode optical fiber is a single strand of glass fiber with a diameter of 8.3 to 10 microns that has one mode of transmission. The index of refraction between the core and the cladding changes less than it does for multimode fibers. Light thus travels parallel to the axis, creating little pulse dispersion. It’s often used for long-distance signal transmission.

Step index multimode fiber has a large core, up to 100 microns in diameter. As a result, some of the light rays that make up the digital pulse may travel a direct route, whereas others zigzag as they bounce off the cladding. These alternative pathways cause the different groupings of light rays to arrive separately at a receiving point. Consequently, this type of fiber is best suited for transmission over short distances.

Graded index fibers are commercially available with core diameters of 50, 62.5 and 100 microns. It contains a core in which the refractive index diminishes gradually from the center axis out toward the cladding. The higher refractive index at the center makes the light rays moving down the axis advance more slowly than those near the cladding.

Fiber Size

Single mode fibers usually has a 9 micron core and a 125 micron cladding (9/125µm). Multimode fibers originally came in several sizes, optimized for various networks and sources, but the data industry standardized on 62.5 core fiber in the mid-80s (62.5/125 fiber has a 62.5 micron core and a 125 micron cladding. It’s now called OM1). Recently, as gigabit and 10 gigabit networks have become widely used, an old fiber design has been upgraded. 50/125 fiber was used from the late 70s with lasers for telecom applications. 50/125 fiber (OM2) offers higher bandwidth with the laser sources used in the gigabit LANs and can allow gigabit links to go longer distances. Laser-optimized 50/125 fiber (OM3 or OM4) today is considered by most to be the best choice for multimode applications.

Basic Cable Design

The two basic cable designs are loose-tube cable, used in the majority of outside plant installations, and tight-buffered cable, primarily used inside buildings.

loose-tube-or-tight-buffered-cable

The modular design of loose-tube cables typically holds up to 12 fibers per buffer tube with a maximum per cable fiber count of more than 200 fibers. Loose-tube cables can be all dielectric or optionally armored. The modular buffer-tube design permits easy drop-off of groups of fibers at intermediate points, without interfering with other protected buffer tubes being routed to other locations.

Tight-buffered cables can be divided into single fiber tight-buffered cables and multi-fiber tight-buffered cables. single fiber tight-buffered cables are used as pigtails, patch cords and jumpers to terminate loose-tube cables directly into opto-electronic transmitters, receivers and other active and passive components. While multi-fiber tight-buffered cables also are available and are used primarily for alternative routing and handling flexibility and ease within buildings.

Connector Type

While there are many different types of fiber connectors, they share similar design characteristics. Simplex vs. duplex: Simplex means 1 connector per end while duplex means 2 connectors per end. The following picture shows various connector styles as well as characteristics.

fiber cable connectors

Summary

Ultimately, what we’ve discussed is only the tip of the iceberg. If you are eager to know more about the fiber optic cable, either basics, applications or purchasing, please visit www.fs.com for more information.

FS UPS–Save Your Power

Imagine that you are working overnight for a project planning on your computer, and all of a sudden, you see a blank screen due to power cut. And what’s worse, all of your documents, important data and information are lost, and all of your efforts are in vain. It does sound like a devastating tragedy, right? However, with FS UPS power supply, you won’t worry about the issue of lost information. You can still move on with your work even if there is a power blackout. Why it’s so magic? Let’s check it out.

Power System On-Line Single-Phase 1kVA 800W Double-Conversion UPS

Three Operational Modes of UPS System

An uninterruptible power supply, also known as uninterruptible power source, UPS or battery/flywheel backup, is an electrical apparatus that provides emergency power to a load when the input power source or mains power fails. A modern UPS system has three general categories: on-line, line-interactive and standby/offline.

A standby/offline UPS charges its battery and then waits for the mains power to drop off. When that happens, the Standby UPS mechanically switches to the battery backup. This switch over takes about 20-100 milliseconds, which is generally well within the tolerance threshold of most electronics.

A line-interactive UPS has a similar design to a standby UPS, but includes a special transformer. This special transformer makes line-interactive UPS better at handling brownouts and power sags without consuming the limited reserve battery power.

An online UPS completely isolates the devices attached to it from the wall power. Instead of jumping into action at the first sign of power cut or voltage regulation issues like the standby and line-interactive UPS, the online UPS continuously filters the wall power through the battery system.

When A UPS is Needed

UPS power supply can not only solve the problem of power outages, but also the following power quality problems.

1.Power surge—The effective value of the output voltage is 110% higher than the rated value and such condition lasts for one or more cycles.

2.High voltage spike—A voltage with a peak value of 6000V and duration from 1/10000 second to 1/2 cycles (10ms).

3.Switching transient—An impulse voltage whose peak voltage reaches up to 20000V, but duration sustains within millionth of a second to one in ten thousand second.

4. Power sags—It refers to a low voltage state whose mains voltage is between 80% and 85% of the rated value, and lasts for one to several cycles.

5. Electrical line noise—It refers to Radio Frequency Interference (RFI), Electromagnetic Interference (EFI) and other kinds of high frequency interference.

6. Frequency variation—The change of mains voltage frequency exceeds more than 3Hz.

7. Brownout—The effective value of the mains voltage is continuously below the rated value for a long time.

8. Power fail—The interruption of the power supply and lasts for at least two cycles to several hours.

What Kind of UPS Can FS Offer

FS mainly deals with online UPS, including one-phrase and three-phrase type. FS online UPS always provides power from the battery, so the load always gets clean power regardless of any power problems. Therefore, FS online UPS is recommended for sensitive and critical electronic devices. The online UPSs offered by FS act as advanced power managers, ensuring the availability of an uninterrupted power supply to protect hardware (such as computers, data centers, telecommunication equipment or other electrical equipment) and mission critical applications. As is shown in the picture below, FS online UPS can be divided into eight parts and each of them has its unique function.

FS online UPS

Summary

High-quality UPS plays an important role in safeguarding against many potential energy issues. If you are investigating the best system for your own requirements, speak to one of our technical specialists who will be able to provide free advice on the most appropriate solution. Feel free to contact us via tech@fs.com.

Cisco Catalyst 9000 Series Switches: What’s New?

Recently, Cisco unveiled the Catalyst 9000 family, shaping the new era of intent-based networking. The Network. Intuitive. The Cisco Catalyst 9000 Series switches are the next generation of enterprise-class switches built for security, Internet of Things (IoT), mobility, and cloud. These switches form the foundational building block for Cisco Software Defined Access (SD-Access). And what’s more, they also support full IEEE 802.3at Power over Ethernet Plus (PoE+), and Universal Power over Ethernet (UPoE). These switches enhance productivity by enabling applications such as IP telephony, wireless, IoT, and video for a true borderless network experience. This post will take a closer look at Catalyst 9000 switches and some highlights of them.

Members of the Cisco Catalyst 9000 Family

The Cisco Catalyst 9000 Series switches come in three main varieties.

Members of the Cisco Catalyst 9000 Family

  • The Catalyst 9300 is top fixed-access enterprise network switch series, stacking to 480Gbps. The Cisco Catalyst 9300 switches feature a fixed number of switch ports (1G 48-port, 1G 24-port, or 24 ports of 1G/2.5G/5G/10G).
  • The Cisco Catalyst 9400 is the leading modular-access switches for enterprise, which can support up to 9Tbps. It features 7-slot and 10-slot variety.
  • The Catalyst 9500 is the industry’s first fixed-core 40Gbps switch for the enterprise. It comes in three different varieties, a 24 port 40G switch, a 12 port 40G switch, and a 40 port 10G switch with 10/40G uplinks. The Cisco Catalyst 9500 is meant for distribution and core use.
New Design

The Catalyst 9000 series have some special design choices, which make Catalyst 9000 the industry’s most aesthetic switches.

  • Rounded frame without sharp corners, changing the traditional switch outline.
  • Ergonomic pullout handles on the Catalyst 9400 enable better weight distribution. You don’t have to carry it on your back or worry about breaking your back when lifting these switches!
  • Innovative slide-out ejectors with latch on the uplink modules of Catalyst 9500. Screwdrivers can be abandoned!
  • Molded plastic covers ejectors, screws and handles on field replaceable units. Gloves are needless!
  • Industry standard icons now advertise the capabilities of the switch–a truly universal switch!
  • The Catalyst 9400 chassis introduces user-configurable dual serviceable fan-tray design, allowing users to service the same fan-tray from the front and rear of the chassis.
  • The Catalyst 9300 Series switches support a blue beacon LED for easy identification of the switch being accessed.

new design choices

New Software

The new Cisco Catalyst 9000 switches use an Intel x86 processor to help create a network that constantly learns and adapts. Above the feature, Cisco adopts a central software console called the Cisco Digital Network Architecture (DNA) Center that replaced the obsolescent and deprecated command-line interface (CLI). DNA is about bringing the power of automation, ease of management, and predictable performance to networks while driving down cost.

New Packaging

The Catalyst 9300 Series introduces new licensing packaging: Network Essentials and Network Advantage, which feature vastly simplified base network packages. Additionally, there are two licensing levels for Cisco DNA, namely Cisco DNA Essentials and Cisco DNA Advantage, which are hardware and term-based software packages used as mandatory add-ons. In addition to on-box capabilities, the Cisco DNA packages unlock additional functionality in Cisco DNA Center (in APIC-EM), enabling controller-based software-defined automation in your network. License consumption is further simplified with the package combinations of Essentials and Advantage.

Transceiver Options for The Catalyst 9000

The following diagram lists the supporting detailed transceiver options for Catalyst 9300 Series. Take C9300-NM-4G as an example, this module has four 1G SFP module slots. Any combination of standard SFP modules are supported.

Model ID Description
11773 Cisco GLC-T Compatible 1000BASE-T SFP Copper RJ-45 100m Transceiver
34976 Cisco GLC-TA Compatible 10/100/1000BASE-T SFP Copper RJ-45 100m Transceiver
12622 Cisco SFP-GE-L Compatible 1000BASE-LX/LH SFP 1310nm 10km DOM Transceiver
48928 Cisco SFP-GE-S-2 Compatible 1000BASE-SX SFP 1310nm 2km DOM Transceiver
39297 Cisco GLC-TE Compatible 1000BASE-T SFP Copper RJ-45 100m Transceiver
15413 Cisco Linksys MGBT1 Compatible 1000BASE-T SFP Copper RJ-45 100m Transceiver
12624 Cisco SFP-GE-Z Compatible 1000BASE-ZX SFP 1550nm 80km DOM Transceiver
39370 Cisco Meraki MA-SFP-1GB-SX Compatible 1000BASE-SX SFP 850nm 550m DOM Transceiver
28299 Cisco ONS-SE-ZE-EL Compatible 10/100/1000BASE-T SFP Copper RJ-45 100m Transceiver


Summary

The Catalyst 9000 Family solves some persistent challenges of enterprise networks by utilizing platform innovations built around four key areas: security, Internet of Things (IoT) convergence, mobility and cloud readiness. There is no doubt that Catalyst 9000 is leading us to a new era of faster and securer network. And if you need any transceiver or cables for mating Cisco Catalyst 9000 series, please contact us via sales@fs.com. All the products offered by FS.COM are tested before shipping to ensure superior quality.

FS Polarity Switchable LC Uniboot Cable: Leading Trend in Fiber Optics

The data center is moving towards high speed and high density. How to build more optical fiber cables in limited space is becoming increasingly severe. In this case, FS.COM introduced a new-type product suitable for high density cabling requirement—polarity switchable LC uniboot cable. It’s the preferred option for high density data center connection today. Its largest feature is switchable polarity, designed to eliminate the need for dual zip cords and reduce overall bulk cabling by 50%. But do you know about polarity switchable LC uniboot cable? What are the features of it and how to reverse the polarity? You may find answer in this post.

Introduction to LC Uniboot Fiber Patch Cable

LC uniboot fiber patch cables are designed for high density applications in data center environment. Generally, the LC uniboot patch cord is designed with a polarization method that can help users easily reverse the fiber polarity. In addition, the LC uniboot fiber patch cable can reduce cable management space comparing to standard patch cord as it places both simplex fibers into one jacket while still terminating into a duplex LC connector. Similar to the standard patch cord, single-mode and multimode versions are available in LC uniboot patch cables.

FS Polarity Switchable LC Uniboot Cable

Features & Advantages

FS polarity switchable LC uniboot cables feature high density. They are used to connect switches or network devices in fiber networks directly or interconnect structured cabling systems in a fiber network. Besides, FS uniboot fiber patch cable has the following highlights.

  • Easy polarity reversal: Polarity changes can be made in the field quickly, without the use of tools, to the correct fiber mapping polarity.
  • “All in One” international quality cable assemblies: FS uniboot fiber patch cable has passed IEC61300-3-35 end-face standard, EIA/TIA-455-171A attenuation standard and CE, etc. providing customers with the outstanding, standards-compliant products and services.

All in One International Quality Cable Assemblies_

  • LC licence compliant & 0.2dB IL: The worldwide licence and low insertion loss keep your network running fast and smooth.

LC Licence Compliant & 0.2dB IL

  • 2.0mm round cable design: 2.0mm thin diameter allows the polarity to be switched from A-B to A-A without any tools.
  • More fiber options: OM3, OM4, and OS2.
  • Space saving: It can save the space of cassettes and cable management by 68%.
How to Achieve Polarity Reversal of LC Uniboot Cable

As we know, for traditional cabling systems using single fiber connectors, maintaining polarity requires that the “A” transmits signal and at the same time the “B” receives signal. But duplex patch cords used to complete serial duplex pair connections available in two types, depending on which polarity technique is used— “A-to-B” patch cord for “straight-through” wiring and “A-to-A” patch cord for “crossover”wiring. Thus, polarity reversal is usually required during fiber optic cabling.

polarity of LC Uniboot Cable

However, polarity reversal of traditional LC patch cable is very inconvenient and annoying since some minor mistakes could lead to various troubles. Therefore, FS.COM developed the LC uniboot cable that is easier for polarity reversal, without having to re-terminate the connectors. Here two methods of polarity reversal are introduced as follows.

LC-uniboot-polarity-reversal

From the above picture, we can see that we can use just 3 steps to reverse polarity. Type one (the left one):

1. Open connector top.

2. Switch the polarity from A-B to A-A.

3. Close connector top.

Type two (the right one):

1. Open connector top.

2. Rotate connector 180 degree to exchange the position.

3. Close connector top.

Summary

To address the increasing demand for high density applications and smaller fiber cable, the LC uniboot fiber patch cable is designed to help cut down cabling space and provide more effective polarity reversal solution. I hope this article could help you choose the proper product for high density cabling. FS.COM not only provides polarity switchable LC fiber patch cable, but also provides bend insensitive fiber patch cable which is also a high density cabling application. Welcome to consult with customer service for more details.

Cat5e VS Cat6 VS Cat7 VS Cat6a: Which One to Choose?

In the era of information explosion, almost everyone can get access to the Internet, and almost everywhere is loaded with network and Ethernet cables. But you may be unaware of the fact that Ethernet cables, though look like the same, actually have different categories. Here, this post will introduce currently available cables in the market (Cat5e, Cat6, Cat6a and Cat7) and compare the differences. May it help with your choice in selecting the appropriate category of cable to support your network.

Cat5e VS Cat6

Both of Cat5e and Cat6 cables are twisted pair cables, performing the same job. They all have the same style RJ-45 plug, and it is capable of plugging into any Ethernet jack on a computer, router, or other similar devices. Despite all the similarities, they do have some differences as shown in the following chart:

Features/Categories Cat5e Cat6
Speed 1000Mbps 10 Gbps over 37-55 meters  of cable
Frequency 100MHz 250 MHz
Maximum Cable Length 100 meters 100 meters for slower network speeds (up to 1,000 Mbps) and higher network speeds over short distances. For Gigabit Ethernet, 55 meters max
Standard Gauges in Conductors 24-26 AWG wire 22-24 AWG wire
Performance Cat6<Cat5e (interference or crosstalk) <Cat5 Lower crosstalk, return loss and insertion loss, higher signal-to-noise ratio

As we can see from the chart, Cat5e (Cat5 Enhanced) offers gigabit Ethernet up to 100 meters, and can support 1000Mbps speeds at 100MHz. Cat6 can provide up to 10 gigabit speeds at 250MHz. Both Cat5e and Cat6 cable allow lengths up to 100 meters, but Cat6 has a lower max length (55 meters) when used for 10GBASE-T. The main difference between Cat5e and Cat6 lies in the transmission performance. Cat6 has an internal separator that lowers interference or near end crosstalk (NEXT). It also improves equal level far end crosstalk (ELFEXT), return loss and insertion loss compared with Cat5e. As a result, Cat6 has a higher signal-to-noise ratio than Cat5e.

Cat6 VS Cat6a VS Cat7

Features/Categories

Cat6

Cat6a

Cat7

Speed

10 Gbps with distance of 37-55 meters

10 Gigabit Ethernet with distance up to 100 meters

10 Gbps with distance up to 100 meters

Connector Type

RJ45

RJ45

GG45

Frequency

250 MHz

500 MHz

600 MHz

Performance

Cat6 (crosstalk) >Cat6a

Cat6>Cat6a (crosstalk) >Cat7

least amount of crosstalk

Standard

TIA/EIA recognition and standards

TIA/EIA recognition and standards

No TIA/EIA recognition

Best Use

households

households

multiple applications or offices

As is shown in this chart, Cat6 supports speeds up to 10 Gigabit Ethernet and frequencies of up to 250 MHz, and can be achieved with distance of 33-55 meters. Cat6a can support bandwidth frequencies of up to 500 MHz, twice the amount of Cat6 cable, and can also support 10Gbps like its predecessor. While Cat7 supports bandwidth frequencies of up to 600 MHz. It also supports 10GBASE-T Ethernet over the full 100 meters like Cat6a. Besides, it features improved crosstalk noise reduction compared to Cat6 and Cat6a. Cat5e, Cat6 and Cat6a are all equipped with RJ45 connectors but Cat7 requires special GigaGate45 (CG45) connectors. The Telecommunications Industry Association (TIA) and Electronic Industries Alliance (EIA) have set standards for wires and cabling, which help standardize installation and performance. At this time, Cat6 and Cat6a are recognized by TIA/EIA standards, but Cat7 is not. With respect to best application, Cat6 and Cat6a are suitable for home use. On the contrary, if you’re running multiple applications, or using it in a business environment, you’d better choose Cat7 cables because these can support multiple applications with fewer errors and less crosstalk.

Conclusion

This article reveals some comparisons between Cat5e, Cat6, Cat6a and Cat7, covering speed, frequency, performance, etc. They all have different features, performances and applications. So if you are considering installing Ether cable, be sure to take these factors into consideration, and opt for the one suited to your need most.