Author Archives: fiber_equipment

Fiberstore WDM Optcial Network Building Blocks

The passive WDM network building block aggregates wavelengths of light from several transmitter sources, and transmits the combined these source light into one fiber. Each wavelength of light remains unchanged and transparent in the presence of neighboring wavelengths.

Multiplexer and Demultiplexer

An optical prism represents a convenient way to understand a MUX/DEMUX function. When a multi-color light beam goes through an optical prism, due to its unique material property and geometry, light of different colors will exit at different angles,and become, in WDM terminology, de-multiplexed. Conversely, and become, in WDM terminology, demultiplexed. Conversely, designated angles, they will exit the prism at the same angle as a single light beam becoming, in WDM terminology, multiplexed.

CWDM MUX and DEMUX

CWDM MUX DEMUX ON FIBERSTORE

The passive CWDM MUX building block can aggregates wavelengths of light from several transmitter sources(TX) and transmits the combined linght into one fiber. Eash wavelength of light remains unchanged and transparent in the presence of neighboring wavelengths. Typically, CWDM MUX and DEMUXE modules are designed with a minumum of 4 channels to a maximum of 16 channels.

CWDM OADM

CWDM Optical Add & Drop is the ideal solution for the increasing bandwidth demand on enterprise and metro access networks. ESCON, ATM, Fiber Channel, Gigabit-Ethernet are supported simultaneously, without disturbing each other. OADM is illustrated in a protedted ring system. OADMs provide access to a singel or even more wavelengths of a wavelength-multiplexed system increasing the possibility of networking. Although this greatly improves the flexibility for CWDM, the insertion loss of these devices poses a challenge on the design of rings as CWDM uses no optical amplitication to overcome losses.

DWDM MUX and DEMUX

In general, a CWDM (coarse WDM) MUX/DEMUX deals with small numbers of wavelengths, typically eight, but with large spans between wavelengths (spaced typically at around 20nm).

A DWDM (dense WDM) MUX/DEMUX deals with narrower wavelength spans (as small as 0.8nm, 0.4nm or even 0.2nm), and can accommodate 40, 80, or even 160 wavelengths.

muxdemux1

DWDM OADM

The 100 GHz DWDM OADM is configurable as both an OADM and a terminal multiplexer and demultiplexer (MUX/DEMUX) to support a broad range of architectures ranging from scalable point-to-point links to four-fiber protected rings. The FiberStore 100 GHz Optical Add/Drop Modules (OADM) offer a family of flexible, low-cost solutions to enable capacity expansion of existing fiber. FiberStore 100GHz DWDM Optical Add/Drop (OADM) is designed to optically add/drop one or multiple DWDM channels into one or two fibers.

Transceiver

The compact transceivers are particularly uesful when operating on bidirectional linkes since each site comprises a transmitter as well as receiver, laser, receiver diode, and relevant electronices for driving the laser and shaping the received signal are integrated in a small form factor module with a standardized interface.

CWDM transceivers typically use directly modulated DFB lasers oprating at 2.5Gb/s and PIN receivers with a receiver module and decision circuit. The modulated output power ranges from 0 to 3 dBm, although it could be reduced at elevated temperatures since to activer cooling of the devices is avalible due to lower-cost design. The (PIN) receiver sensitivity of the transceivers is around to lower-cost design. The (PIN) receiver sensitivity of the transceivers is around-24…26dB so that a link budget of at least 24 dB should be available, which can be used to accommodate both the insertion loss of components (multiplexer fiber) as well as penalties due to the interaction of fiber dispersion and laser chirp. At lower bit-rates, the link budget is increasing up to 32dB at 1.25Gb/s.

Fiberstore wdm transceivers with embedded transmitter and receiver functions in a single packaged module. With different grades of performance,and have been integrated into WDM networks for point to point links, metro and core networks and storage area networks (SAN) applications such as data-center mirroring.

Fiberstore supply 1.25Gbps (Gigabit) rate, 2.5Gbps rate, 4G rate and 10G rate CWDM & DWDM transceiver modules which enables use of CWDM/DWDM solutions for uncontrolled environment applications. CWDM transceivers can operate on 9/125um single-mode fiber to 40km or 80km by using special CWDM channels (1270nm to 1610nm, in steps of 20nm). Likewise, DWDM transceivers can supports a link length of up to 40km or 80km on single-mode fiber by using special DWDM channels ( 100GHz ITU Grid CH17 to CH61). All CWDM and DWDM transceivers from FiberStore support DDM (Digital Diagnostic Management), and they are compliant with the Multi-Source Agreement (MSA) ensuring compatibility with a wide range of fiber optic networking equipment.

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sfp tansceiver                                     xfp transceiver

Other Building Blocks on Fiberstore

1G 2G 4G 10G Transponders ( OEO)

Transponders are usually used in some applications that the link length is much longer than what the power budget defines or there is not a clear line of sight between the two end nodes. OEO means optical-to-electrical-to-optical. It is one type of transponders. OEO converts optical signal to electrical signal and then to optical signal again. It allows for add-drop functionality, in addition to simple optical reply or transponder. FiberStore supply 1G, 2G and 4G OEO, 125M~4.25G OEO Converter, 125M~1.25G OEO Converter, such as SFP to SFP Optical-Electrical-Optical type media converter / repeater to meet your different requirement.

10G OEO converter is used in Telecommunication room, R&D laboratory, Data center or even 1310nm /1550nm/CWDM/DWDM Optical Wavelength Conversion. It supports multi-protocol 10G data rates including SDH/SONET STM-64/OC-192, 10G Ethernet, or 10G Fiber Channel. FiberStore supply high quality 10G Transponder, such as XFP-XFP or SFP+ to XFP or SFP+ to SFP+ Optical-Electrical-Optical type media converter / repeater. They are for connection between fiber to fiber 10Gbps equipment function as fiber mode converter/repeater for long distance transmission.

For a complete listing of Fiberstore’s WDM products, refer to the latest guide on www.fs.com or contact us at sales@fs.com.

Multimode Fiber Patch Cables from Fiberstore

Fiberstore has been providing quality fiber optical cabling and connectivity solutions to datacomm and telecommunication industries to worldwide customers for over ten years. As a specialized fiber optic cables and patch cables manufacturer, we have conducted rigorous quality controls on each manufacture steps, to make sure that all of our fiber optic cables are completely ROHS and REACH compliant. Our fiber optic patch cables are classified to common multimode fiber cables (OM1, OM2, OM3, OM4 patch cables), armored fiber patch cables, related fiber cables, MTP/MPO trunk cables, multi-core fiber patch cables as well as many other fiber patch cables. This article is set up to mainly introduce the multi-core fiber patch cords.

Multi-core fiber patch cable get its name as it is consist of multi core fiber, which also called multimode fiber patch cable. Multi fiber patch cable is most commonly used for trunk cable plant and can be as the distribution or breakout patch cable. We offer the fiber trunk patch cables with SC, LC, FC, ST, MTRJ, MU, E2000 connectors, 2-288 cores/fibers are optional to be customized and the sub-branch can be 0.9 mm and 2.0 mm.

12-fiber-mtp-om4-patch-cable

For each connector type, like LC, there are LC to FC, LC to SC, LC to ST, LC to MTRJ, LC to MU, LC to E2000, LC to SMA and LC to LC fiber cable, all of which are optically and electrically inspected and tested using accepted industry test procedures as recommended by the most current version of ANSI/TIA-455B standard test procedure for standard fiber optic fiber, cables, transducers, sensors, connecting & terminating devices, and other components.

The multi fiber patch cables features include:

  • Multi-fiber channel options
  • Various option of fiber and connector types
  • Standard or custom configurations
  • Easy to use, easy to install and maintain
  • Low insertion loss and back reflection
  • Custom defined specifications
  • Environmentally stable
  • Complete with orange OFNR rated riser/jacket
  • 100% optically tested to ensure high performance
  • According to different requirements, 4 to 966 cores are available

Applications:

  • FTTH, LAN, Test equipment, Military industry
  • CATV
  • Outside plant
  • Premise networks
  • Aerial distribution
  • Measuring equipment
  • Fiber optic communication system
  • Optical active component and equipment

We offer custom service for customers with options of any fiber type, any connectors, and lengths and even customer logo and label on fiber patch cables. Fiber types is selectable from 10G OM3, OM4 optical fiber, single mode 9/125 optical fiber, OM1, OM2 multimode 50/125 fibers.

Singlemode fiber optic pigtails

Fiber pigtails provide a fast way to make factory terminations in the field. Factory terminated pigtails can easily be fusion or mechanically spliced to an existing fiber line. Fiberstore provide wide degree flexibility on fiber optic pigtails, including 9/125 single-mode, 62.5/125 multimode, 50/125 multimode and 10G 50/125um OM3 types, simplex, 4 fibers, 6 fibers, 8 fibers, 12 fibers, 24 fibers, 48 fibers and so on. These fiber pigtails can be with fan-out kits and full compliant to Telcordia, EIA/TIA and IEC standards.

See our singlemode fiber optic pigtails lists:

Common Fiber Pigtails

Duplex/Simplex 9/125 Single-mode LC/SC/ST/FC/E2000/MU/MTRJ Pigtail

hese SINGLEMODE 9/125, 2.0mm duplex/Simplex fiber pigtails have an ST or SC, FC, LC connector on one end. They are commonly used for splicing on to outside plant or riser rated fiber optic cables.

Waterproof Fiber Pigtails

Fiber optic waterproof pigtails can be used in harsh environment. It is mainly used in outdoor connection of the optical transmitter. Waterproof fiber pigtail is designed with a stainless steel strengthened waterproof unit and armored outdoor PE jacketed cables. Our singlemode waterproof pigtails are 2, 4, 6, 8 and 12 cords optional; Good reliability and stability; Excellent water-resistance performance; Applicable connector: FC, SC, ST, LC; Waterproof, rigid and anti-corrosive copper connector; Simple installation.

Ribbon Fan-out Pigtails

Ribbon fan-out patch cord provide a stable and reliable connection for single mode fiber. Our singel mode waterproof pigtails are 4, 6, 8 and 12 cords optional; Applicable connector: FC, SC, ST, LC; Applications to ODF, Optic-fiber Communication Systems, Computer Networks, Optical Access Networks, Test Equipment.

Bunch Pigtails

Our bunch pigtails are 4, 6, 8, 12, 24, 48pk options, and with 900 micron buffer are ready for splicing. Each fiber strand in the kit has a color-coded buffer for easy identification and the colors are industry standard, terminated on one end with LC or SC, ST, FC connectors. Connectors are ceramic with Ultra PC (UPC) finish. Each cable comes with test results and a lifetime guarantee.

Armored Pigtails

Fiber optic armored pigtails are with stainless steel tube inside the outer jacket to protect the central unit of the cable. So they will not get damage even they are stepped by an adult and bit by rodents. Our armored pigtails are simplex and 4, 6, 8, 12, 24, 48pk options, terminated on one end with LC or SC, ST, FC connectors.

PoE media converter From FiberStore

PoE/PoE+ PSE Media Converter 

The PoE/PoE+ PSE Media Converter not only enables you to connect copper cables to long-distance fiber data links, it also safely powers compatible devices plugged in on the copper side.

Fully compliant with the 802.3af Power over Ethernet (PoE) standard, the converter functions as power source equipment (PSE) to provide -48 VDC power via copper wiring to access points, cameras, and similar devices in areas without nearby power outlets.

For equipment protection, it offers overcurrent and undercurrent detection, as well as fault protection input and power monitoring. It also has powered device signature sensing to detect when a 802.3af compliant device is connected downstream.

The distinct of PoE & PoE+

PoE
Consumes less than 10 Watts (heating) plus PSE power IEEE802.3af Power to field <15.5 Watts.
Input Specifications: 100-240 ±10% VAC, 50/60Hz, 0.5A to 0.2A.
Operating Temperature:+32° to +122° F (0° to +50° C)

PoE+ Giga-basic: Consumes less than 10 Watts (heating) plus PSE power IEEE802.3af/at Power to field <50 Watts (2×24.5 W).
Input Specifications: 100-240 ±10% VAC, 50/60Hz, 1.6A to 0.7A.
Operating Temperature:+32° to +104° F (0° to +40° C)

PoE PD Media Converter

Powered by PoE switches, mid-span hubs, or other 802.3af power source equipment (PSE). Works as a powered device (PD) that receives its power from the spare pairs of copper data cable

Because the converter is compatible with 802.3af PoE standard, it draws its power via UTP cable connected to a PoE PSE, such as a PoE switch. This setup makes the converter ideal for remote areas of a network without AC power outlets.

Power over Ethernet (PoE) is a technology that allows both data and power to be transmitted over standard Cat5 copper cable. Power over Ethernet (PoE) is a flexible, cost-effective solution because it carries both data and power over the same Ethernet cable. That enables operators to install and power PoE-enabled remote devices anywhere and Ethernet connection is available. It’s perfect for wireless access points, video surveillance, security cameras, building management, retail video kiosks, and more, making it possible to easily install or move a device with minimum disruption and cost.

 

E2000 to ST fiber patch cable

E2000 to ST fiber patch cable information:

e2000-st fiber patch cable

ST part of the fiber optic cable is the ST connectors. ST is probably still the most popular connector for multimode networks, widely used in the optical distribution frame (ODF), like most buildings and campuses. It has a bayonet mount and a long cylindrical 2.5 mm ceramic (usually) or polymer ferrule to hold the fiber. Most ferrules are ceramic, but some are metal or plastic. ST connectors are constructed with a metal housing and are nickel-plated, can be inserted into and removed from a fiber-optic cable both quickly and easily. They have ceramic ferrules and are rated for 500 mating cycles. From a design perspective, it is recommended to use a loss margin of 0.5 dB or the vendor recommendation for ST connectors.

E2000 part of the fiber optic cable is the E2000 connectors. E2000 fiber optic connector has a push-pull coupling mechanism, with an automatic metal shutter in the connector as dust and laser beam protection. One-piece design for easy and quick termination, used for high safety and high power applications. E2000 connector available for Singlemode PC, APC and Multimode PC. The E2000 Connector is one of the few fiber optic connectors featuring a spring-loaded shutter which fully protects the ferrule from dust and scratches. The shutter closes automatically when the connector is disengaged, locking out impurities which could later lead to network failure, and locking in potentially harmful laser beams.

Fiberstore E2000 to ST fiber patch cable is made and custom to order worldwide and are fully tested to guarantee top performance. Each assembly is serialized for easy idenfication ans sealed in individual Ziploc bags. Test results are included in each order. They are constructed with high quality fiber glass abd high grade connectors with ceramic ferrules for increased durability and accuracy.

Options:
  • Simplex, duplex or multi fiber assemblies
  • Jacket types: Riser, PVC, Plenum rated, or LSZH (Low Smoke Zero Halogens) and are all RoHS cables available
  • Custom fiber optic cable lengths and jacket colors
  • Various fiber types and wavelengths, typical 9/125 single mode, 50/125 multimode and 62.5/125 multimode
  • 0.9mm / 1.8mm / 2.0mm / 3.0mm outer diameter fiber optic cables
  • PC, UPC, and APC polish types

Fiber Optic Polishing Kits Solution

Fiber Optic Polishing kits play an important role in fiber optic installation. They are specially used in fiber industry for polishing the end face of fiber optic product.

Unlike electrical wires, optical fibers require end-surface treatment for proper light propagation. The two most common ways of surface preparations are cleaving and polishing. While fiber cleavage is very effective on fibers with small diameters such as 125 microns, polishing is essential for almost all glass-based fibers with cladding diameters larger than 200 microns. Furthermore, all fiber connectors require polishing. We will focus our discussion on glass-based fiber polishing in this tutorial since plastic optical fibers (POF) can be cut with special blades at elevated temperatures with satisfactory results.

In Fiberstore fiber optic polishing catalogs, you will find our fiber optic polishing machines and other fiber polishing machine kits including fiber polishing fixture for all types of fiber connectors, fiber optic polishing puck and fiber optic polishing paper.

Fiber Optic Polishing Machine

Fiberstore Fiber optic polishing machine is specially designed for ferrule polishing. The optional accessories – the various connector polishing jigs – allow the fixing and polishing of the most commonly used connector types. This polishing machine owns the advanced features as slow start, adjustable speed and weight, along with changeable polishing jigs. There are square pressurized polisher and central pressurized polisher.

All of Fiberstore’s precision connector polishing machines offerings are designed for superior performance by utilizing a rigid fixture system, which is significantly better than floating fixture type machines. Our optical fiber polishing machines are accurate and repeatability to consistently achieve superior production results when measuring apex offset, radius of curvature, fiber protrusion, back reflection and under-cut.

Two factors are of utmost importance when selecting a polishing machine: Yield and throughput. Yield is an indicator of quality and repeatability. Throughput is a measure of productivity. The Domaille polishers are leaders in the industry in terms of both yield and throughput. By allowing you to adjust platen force, speed, time and slow start capability, it will satisfy virtually any exacting specification.

Fiber optic polishing fixture(Jigs)

Fiberstore available for the following connector:

SC-UPC, SC-APC
FC-UPC, FC-APC
ST-UPC
LC-UPC, LC-APC
MU-UPC
MT-RJ
E2000-UPC, E2000-APC

Custom Fixtures Available

Fiberstore optical fiber polishing fixtures, coupled with our optical fiber polishing machines, hold the close tolerances and repeatability required to achieve superior production results for apex offset, radius of curvature, fiber protrusion, back reflection and under-cut.

Fiberstore fixtures in round, square models. Models are available in 10, 12, 18, 24 and 36 port configurations depending on connector style. All models are manufactured from hardened stainless steel with ferrule holes and center bores controlled to the tightest tolerances in the industry guaranteed. Our Polishing Fixtures are used for polishing all industry standard fiber optic connectors. Available in one-piece connector or ferrule-only fixtures.

Fiber Optic Hand Polishing Puck

Fiberstore hand polishing puck is used to polish SC,ST and FC type fiber optic connectors. Our hand polish puck is made by CNC machines for repeated quality and accuracy. The unique design prevents vapor locking and surface tension so your connectors are polished properly.

Material: Stainless Steel
Suitable Connectors: LC, MU, SC, ST, FC SC APC

Fiber Optic Polishing Paper

Fiber optic polishing paper is using latest developments of international Ultra-precision coating technology, uniformly dispersed the abrasive powder micron and nanometer (diamond, white fused alumina, silicon carbide, silicon oxide, cerium oxide, iron oxide, etc.) and new polymer material on the high-strength film surface. The main purpose of fiber optic polishing paper: Optical fiber connectors, couplers, attenuators polishing; Ceramic ferrule, plastic inserts, glass tube hairs polishing; Optical devices, optical crystal polishing.

Features:
Evenly-sprayed particles on coated surfaces.
Submicron powder particles make high polishing accuracy.
Positioned lapping & polishing to save abrasive materials.
Fine curved surface polishing effects because of flexible substrate.
Suitable for polishing with dry, water or oil.

UND0.5 UND1 UND2 UND3 UND6 UND9 UND15 UND30 UND45
Size( μ m) 0.5 1 2 3 6 9 15 30 45
Mesh 10000 8000 6000 4000 3000 2000 1200 600 400
Round Specification(mm) Φ 70 / Φ 110 / Φ 127 / Φ 203
Square Specification(mm) 114 × 114 / 152 × 152 / 228 × 228
Banding(mm) 1.6 / 2.0 / 2.5 / 3.2 / 3.8 / 101.6

how mpo/mtp cable to be tested

To understand the challenges of MPO cable validation, it’s necessary to understand MPO cables and how they’re tested in the field. An MPO connection is about the size of a fingernail and contains 12 optical fibers, each less than the diameter of a human hair – and each one needs to be tested separately. That traditionally means the use of a fan-out cord to isolate each fiber, followed by tedious manual testing, tracing, and error-prone calculations.

Testing and determining fiber polarity is another challenge. The simple purpose of any polarity scheme is to provide a continuous connection from the link’s transmitter to the link’s receiver. For array connectors, TIA-568-C.0 defines three methods to accomplish this: Methods A, B, and C. Deployment mistakes are common because these methods require a combination of patch cords with different polarity types

So what would a proper MPO test look like? The answer is simple: Test all 12 fibers – the whole cable – simultaneously and comprehensively (including loss, polarity, etc.). That sort of test capability changes the fiber landscape, enabling installers and technicians to efficiently validate and troubleshoot fiber – flying through the process by tackling an entire 12-fiber cable trunk with the push of a button.

The tools to perform this type of test are just emerging on the market, and promise to reduce the time and labor costs up to 95% over individual fiber tests (according to internal research based on the average list of standard competitive products). Characteristics to look for in such a tool include:

An onboard MPO connector to eliminate the complexity and manual calculations associated with a fan-out cord.
A single “Scan All” test function that delivers visual verification via an intuitive user interface for all 12 MPO fibers in a connector.
Built-in polarity verification for end-to-end connectivity of MPO trunk cables.
“Select Individual Fiber” function that enables the user to troubleshoot a single fiber with more precision.
Demand for fast and reliable delivery of critical applications is driving data center technology to evolve at an ever-increasing pace. And that insatiable need for bandwidth ensures that the integrity of the data center has become inextricably linked to the strength of the fiber cabling infrastructure. The growing use of MPO fiber trunks – and the migration from 10-Gbps to 40/100-Gbps connections – means that it’s time to stop the cumbersome verification of individual fibers. After all, it’s a single MPO connection. You should be able to test it as one.

You can buy fiber optic jumpers with mpo/mpo connectors  from FiberStore now!

What factors will affect the fiber splicing result?

I get the answer from a professional fiber splicing engineer- William Graham

He tell that:

1 Keep the fiber splicer and fiber cleaver in the case when not in use.

2 Be sure you are set on the proper splicing program for the fiber you are splicing.

3 Don’t expect good splices under adverse conditions of dirt, dampness and wind. Create good splicing conditions.

4 Keep the dome and heater covers closed unless you are splicing or heating

5 Close the cleaves as soon as you take out the cleaved fiber

6 Clean your splicer before you start splicing.

7 Use an air bulb and fine brush for cleaning.

8 Do not used spray cans or the propellants might do damage.

9 If splicing gel filled cable ensure it is really clean so you don’t gum up the splicer.

10 Clean any gummed up grooves with a piece of sharp wood. Never use metal.

11 Charge the battery when you finish. The splicer we use will do over 200 splices and heats on a charge.

12 Have a stable and secure place for your splicer when splicing. If it drops on the floor it is probably garbage.

13 Keep your shrink splice sleeves in a sealed container (ziplock bag)

14 If you drop the shrink splice sleeve on the floor, leave it there.

15 Never clean the fiber with alcohol after you have cleaved it or you might cause reflections.

16 Have the splicer serviced (calibrated) when necessary

17 Clean the cleaver before you start with a fine brush and alcohol, especially if using gel filled cable.

18 Close the cleaver between cleaves to keep out air-borne dirt.

19 And, finally, if you drop the cleaver on the floor its value will be drastically diminished.

Manage your fiber ends and empty the scrap container at the end of the day.

Do the splice job as above points, you will get a good splice. Additionally, I also have a write a tutorial about fiber splicing process. You can read all from here. http://www.fs.com/Optical-Fusion-Splicing-Tutorial-aid-350.html and if you need fiber optic jumpers also can sent requriments to sales@fs.com

A clear understanding of the difference between fiber pigtail and patch cord

Previously, I only know different in appearance of the fiber pigtail and patch cord.

The fiber optic patch cord = fiber optic connector + fiber optic cable + fiber optic connector

IMG_5915

but the fiber optic pigtail = fiber optic connector + fiber optic cable. I think like this is easy to separate between them.

12fibers SCUPC SM pigtail

Recently, I have readed a discussion about the difference between fiber pigtail and patch core. There are so many professinal people to discuss it. They give me a clear understanding that:

Patch cords are made from either single or multi-fiber cables (usually rated for indoor use) and connected at each end with fiber cable connectors (either single fiber or multiple-fiber connector). Sometimes patch cords are called jumpers, especially if they are simplex or duplex. The connectors are selected to mate with the interfacing equipment or cable connectors. The important idea is that the cable has a connector at each end. The fiber can be either tight or loose buffered and the cable can be made of various diameters (1.2 mm to 3.0 mm are common). The patch cord may have one type of connector (ST FC, SC, LC, etc) on one end and a different connector on the other as long as all the fibers are connectorized on each cable end – this is a transition jumper. Patch cords are commonly used to connect ports on fiber distribution frames (FDFs). The  new mpo connecter make it  possible to run a singel cable that automatically terminates 12 fibers in one easy plug in.  Compared to common patch cord with ST FC, SC, LC connetor, MPO cable is a truly innovative and amazing group of products that really takes fiber optics into the new millennium.

mtpmpo3

A pigtail is a cable (like a pach cord or jumper) with only one end terminated with an optical connector. Patch cords are often cut into shorter lengths to make two pigtails. Pigtails are found anywhere, but more commonly in optical assemblages or optical components

Pigtails are installed where they will be protected and spliced,lets say on the inside of the ODF and that’s why they are normally not sheathed. They have a coating colour so that you slice them on the corresponding colour on the out coming fiber.
On the other hand patch codes are used between the ODF to the WDM MUX or equipment. If you cut a patch code for use as pigtail then in case of future faulting where you are dealing with multiple pairs it will be difficult. But still if you need to cut the patch code check on its characteristics.

In general, the only major physical differnce b/w patch cord & pigtail is that patch cord is a fixed length piece of cable with dual ended fiber connector type may vary & pigtail is one meter standard OFC core with white white colored jacket. As per standard pigtail can only be used for OFC termination purpose & patch cord is to be used to connect the active component with ODF so that means pigtail can not be used at the place of patch cord.

Municipal Fiber optic networks

 

The city where I live, Palo Alto has a long tradition of providing municipal utility services (that is, electricity, water, gas, etc) to its residents. For the past several years the city has been considering implementing a municipal fiber optic system which would permit residents to have fiber optic cable link directly to their houses which provided television, telephone and Internet services (at very high bandwidths). Naturally, the incumbent service providers (cable and phone) strongly lobby against such moves (for precisely the same reasons these companies wish to be monopolists in the first place.) The incumbents have sabotaged municipal FTTH fiber efforts in the past — specifically in the “tri-cities” region in Illinois, around the far west suburbs of Chicago.

In this Sunday’s Mercury News, there’s an article which discusses the city’s plan to make a final feasibility study of the project and a recommendation to the city council. Even if the city council votes in favor of the project, there will be a city wide referendum, since fiber optic cable prices would require millions of dollars in bonds to finance.

As a resident of Palo Alto, as well as a technology advocate, I’m rather strongly in favor of such a move by the city, even though it carries some financial risk (if the fiber optic plan flops, the city would have to raise its rates for other utilities).

At last there might be a means of transmission which is separated from the fiber optic cable providers, something that the local cable and phone companies absolutely refuse to provide.

Imagine a network with massive amounts of bandwidth where multiple companies competed to send content down that connection to a consumer. How would this be anything but a win-win situation for everyone? The city sells the bandwidth to many different companies, consumers have lots of choices in content providers, and the content providers are collecting revenue for their content — and that’s the whole point anyway isn’t it?

SOURCE: http://it.toolbox.com